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Shiraoi, Japan

Kita S.,Science Club | Hashiba R.,Science Club | Ueki S.,Science Club | Kimoto Y.,Science Club | And 11 more authors.
Biological Bulletin

In conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training performed on the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, a stimulus (the conditional stimulus, CS; e.g., sucrose) that elicits a feeding response is paired with an aversive stimulus (the unconditional stimulus, US) that elicits the whole-body withdrawal response and inhibits feeding. After CTA training and memory formation, the CS no longer elicits feeding. We hypothesize that one reason for this result is that after CTA training the CS now elicits a fear response. Consistent with this hypothesis, we predict the CS will cause (1) the heart to skip a beat and (2) a significant change in the heart rate. Such changes are seen in mammalian preparations exposed to fearful stimuli. We found that in snails exhibiting long-term memory for one-trial CTA (i.e., good learners) the CS significantly increased the probability of a skipped heartbeat, but did not significantly change the heart rate. The probability of a skipped heartbeat was unaltered in control snails given backward conditioning (US followed by CS) or in snails that did not acquire associative learning (i.e., poor learners) after the one-trial CTA training. These results suggest that as a consequence of acquiring CTA, the CS evokes conditioned fear in the conditioned snails, as evidenced by a change in the nervous system control of cardiac activity. © 2011 Marine Biological Laboratory. Source

Takeda K.,Science Club | Warita S.,Science Club | Asano K.,Science Club | Okabe M.,Science Club | And 4 more authors.
ICIC Express Letters

We developed Liquid 3D, a new type of device that shows three-dimensional (3D) pictures in liquid. By using Liquid 3D, people are able to see objects without straining their eyes compared with the present light-emitting devices in common use. Using liquid to show pictures is based on the principle that when glass pipes containing water colored with food coloring and oil are placed in an oil-filled container, the water seems to oat. According to this principle, we placed a number of glass pipes into a colorless container, placed colored water in the glass pipes, and produced pictures. The device we developed is comprised of a 3D-image display, a pouring system that injects oil and colored water from tanks into the display, and a computer that calculates the amounts and positions of oil and colored water and controls the pouring system. © 2014 ISSN 1881-803X. Source

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