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Albani M.,European Space Agency | Marelli F.,European Space Agency | Giaretta D.,Alliance for Permanent Access | Shaon A.,Science and Technology Facility Council
International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) | Year: 2012

The proper preservation of both the current and historical scientific data will underpin a multitude of ecological, economic and political decisions in the future of our society. The SCIDIP-ES project addresses the long-term persistent storage, access and management needs of scientific data by providing preservation infrastructure services. Taking exemplars from the Earth Science domain we highlight the key preservation challenges and barriers to be overcome by the SCIDIP-ES infrastructure. SCIDIP-ES augments existing science data e-infrastructures by adding specific services and toolkits, which implement core preservation concepts, thus guaranteeing the long-term access to data assets across and beyond their designated communities. © 2012 IEEE.

Breda M.,University of Padua | Brunelli K.,University of Padua | Grazzi F.,CNR Institute for Complex Systems | Scherillo A.,Science and Technology Facility Council | Calliari I.,University of Padua
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science | Year: 2014

Duplex stainless steels (DSSs) are biphasic steels having a ferritic-austenitic microstructure that allows them to combine good mechanical and corrosion-resistance properties. However, these steels are sensitive to microstructural modifications, such as ferrite decomposition at high temperatures and the possibility of strain-induced martensite (SIM) formation from cold-worked austenite, which can significantly alter their interesting features. In the present work, the effects of cold rolling on the developed microstructural features in a cold-rolled SAF 2205 DSS and the onset of martensitic transformation are discussed. The material was deformed at room temperature from 3 to 85 pct thickness reduction, and several characterization techniques (scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, hardness measurements, and time-of-flight-neutron diffraction) were employed in order to fully describe the microstructural behavior of the steel. Despite the low stacking fault energy of DSS austenite, which contributed to SIM formation, the steel was found to be more stable than other stainless steel grades, such as AISI 304L. Rolling textures were similar to those pertaining to single-phase materials, but the presence of the biphasic (Duplex) microstructure imposed deformation constraints that affected the developed microstructural features, owing to phases interactions. Moreover, even if an intensification of the strain field in austenite was revealed, retarded SIM transformation kinetics and lower martensite amounts with respect to AISI 304L were observed. © 2014, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.

Pietropaolo A.,National Research Council Italy | Pietropaolo A.,ENEA | Murtas F.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Claps G.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | And 6 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2013

A thermal neutron detector based on the Gas Electron Multiplier technology is presented. It is configured to let a neutron beam interact with a series of borated glass layers placed in sequence along the neutron path inside the device. The detector has been tested on beam both at the ISIS (UK) spallation neutron source and at the TRIGA reactor of ENEA, at the Casaccia Research Center, near Rome in Italy. For a complete characterization and description of the physical mechanism underlying the detector operation, several Monte Carlo simulations were performed using both Fluka and Geant4 code. These simulations are intended to help in seeking the optimal geometrical set-up and material thickness (converter layer, gas gap, sheet substrate) to improve the final detector design in terms of achieving the best detector efficiency possible. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Grazzi F.,National Research Council Italy | Bartoli L.,National Research Council Italy | Civita F.,Stibbert Museum | Paradowska A.M.,Science and Technology Facility Council | And 2 more authors.
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2010

Two Japanese long swords (katanas) belonging to the Koto Age (X-XVI century A.D.) were measured through time of flight neutron diffraction to analyze the phases, and the stress and strain distribution, in selected parts of the blades. The swords are representative of two different forging schools (Aoe and Kanesada) and one of the main aims of the measurements was to evidence possible similarities and differences. Two independent experiments were carried out at the ISIS pulsed neutron source using the INES and ENGIN-X diffractometers. The former was employed to map the average phase distribution on two selected cross sections, of each blade, distinguishing among the ridge, the core, and the edge of the blades. In this way, we were able to quantify the coarse distribution of the carbon content and, moreover, we could evidence the presence of martensite. These data were then complemented measuring detailed stress and strain distribution maps on ENGIN-X. As far as the ridge and the core are concerned, the tang data were taken as a reference. These measurements significantly improve the knowledge and understanding of the technology used to produce Japanese swords belonging to the Koto Age. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

Grazzi F.,National Research Council Italy | Bartoli L.,National Research Council Italy | Civita F.,Museo Stibbert | Franci R.,Museo Stibbert | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2011

Japanese blades have always been considered very interesting objects, both from the stylistic point of view and their peculiar performances. It is amazing how the test and try process with a semi-empirical approach which lead to the optimization of Japanese blades, an almost ideal tool, is yet to be fully understood. In this work, we present results from a new non invasive approach to the study of these peculiar artefacts. Time of Flight Thermal Neutron Diffraction (TOF-ND) measurements were taken on two instrument INES and ENGIN-X, at the ISIS facility, RAL, UK. Two Japanese blades and eight blade fragments have been successfully characterized in terms of composition of the steel, smelting and smithing processes, and forging techniques. The differences among the production periods and forging traditions have been clearly determined. Further work is needed on standards to fully understand the production technique of a sample by comparison of the object under study with objects of known production methods. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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