Zarei M.,Science and Research Branch |
Rahmani A.M.,Science and Research Branch |
Farazkish R.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran
International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing | Year: 2011
In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) the existence of malicious nodes is a seriouschallenge. Malicious nodes increase the traffic by sending distrusted messages. In this paper, we present CCTF: a congestion control protocol based on trustworthiness of nodes inWSNs using fuzzy logic. Through the use of CCTF, each node reduces malfunctioning neighbour(s) effects via dropping valueless packets and increases the buffer capacity; consequently, the chance of network congestion reduces. Simulation results show that when 16% ofall nodes are malicious, CCTF increases the packet delivery ratio up to 40% meanwhile it reduces the packet drop ratio nearly 27.5%. © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Sepehrian H.,Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Iran |
Ahmadi S.J.,Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Iran |
Waqif-Husain S.,Science and Research Branch |
Faghihian H.,University of Isfahan |
Alighanbari H.,Shahid Beheshti University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010
Mesoporous aluminosilicates, have been prepared with various mole ratios of Si/Al and Cethyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). They have been characterized by XRD, nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements, FT-IR and thermogravimetry. Adsorption behavior of heavy metal ions on this adsorbent have been studied and discussed. The results show that incorporation of aluminum ions in the framework of the mesoporous MCM-41 has transformed it into an effective cation exchanger. The Kd values of several metal ions have been increased. Separation of Sr(II)-Ce(III), Sr(II)-U(VI) and Cd(II)-Ce(III) has been developed on columns of this novel mesoporous cation exchanger. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sajedi F.,Islamic Azad University at Ahvāz |
Razak H.A.,University of Malaya |
Mahmud H.B.,University of Malaya |
Shafigh P.,Science and Research Branch
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012
In this investigation 12 mortar mixes including three groups were prepared using binder contents 380 and 500 kg/m 3. All the specimens were cured after casting and demoulding in curing regimes, i.e. at room temperature (ac) and in water (wc). The highest strength was obtained for cement-slag mortars 380-wc at later ages as 80 MPa. For all groups of mortars, there could rarely be strength loss at later ages. It was observed that in duration of 3-7 days, wc is the optimum for all groups of mortars with exception of cement mortar 500 and slag mortar 500. In duration of 28-90 days, wc is also the optimum for three groups of mortars with exception of cement mortar 500. It was revealed that an exponential relationship exists between the strengths obtained in air and water curing conditions for each group of mortar, i.e. with and without using ground granulated blast furnace slag. It was proved that higher strengths could be obtained using lower binders' contents for cement and cement-slag mortars provided the specimens were cured in water. This is a new finding having importance from economic and environmental viewpoints; meaning that for producing higher strengths it is not a necessity to use more binders. It was found that increase in level of cement and slag makes the mortars more sensitive to air curing conditions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Verma M.,Thapar University |
Kumar A.,Thapar University |
Singh Y.,Thapar University |
Allahviranloo T.,Science and Research Branch
Neural Computing and Applications | Year: 2013
This paper presented a non-normal p-norm trapezoidal fuzzy number-based fault tree technique to obtain the reliability analysis for substations system. Due to uncertainty in the collected data, all the failure probabilities are represented by non-normal p-norm trapezoidal fuzzy number. In this paper, the fault tree incorporated with the non-normal p-norm trapezoidal fuzzy number and minimal cut sets approach are used for reliability assessment of substations. An example of 66/11 kV substation is given to demonstrate the method. Further, fuzzy risk analysis problems are described to find out the probability of failure of each components of the system using linguistic variables, which could be used for managerial decision making and future system maintenance strategy. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Limited.
Naimi B.,University of Twente |
Naimi B.,Science and Research Branch |
Skidmore A.K.,University of Twente |
Groen T.A.,University of Twente |
Hamm N.A.S.,University of Twente
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2011
Aim To investigate the impact of positional uncertainty in species occurrences on the predictions of seven commonly used species distribution models (SDMs), and explore its interaction with spatial autocorrelation in predictors. Methods A series of artificial datasets covering 155 scenarios including different combinations of five positional uncertainty scenarios and 31 spatial autocorrelation scenarios were simulated. The level of positional uncertainty was defined by the standard deviation of a normally distributed zero-mean random variable. Each dataset included two environmental gradients (predictor variables) and one set of species occurrence sample points (response variable). Seven commonly used models were selected to develop SDMs: generalized linear models, generalized additive models, boosted regression trees, multivariate adaptive regression spline, random forests, genetic algorithm for rule-set production and maximum entropy. A probabilistic approach was employed to model and simulate five levels of error in the species locations. To analyse the propagation of positional uncertainty, Monte Carlo simulation was applied to each scenario for each SDM. The models were evaluated for performance using simulated independent test data with Cohen's Kappa and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results Positional uncertainty in species location led to a reduction in prediction accuracy for all SDMs, although the magnitude of the reduction varied between SDMs. In all cases the magnitude of this impact varied according to the degree of spatial autocorrelation in predictors and the levels of positional uncertainty. It was shown that when the range of spatial autocorrelation in the predictors was less than or equal to three times the standard deviation of the positional error, the models were less affected by error and, consequently, had smaller decreases in prediction accuracy. When the range of spatial autocorrelation in predictors was larger than three times the standard deviation of positional error, the prediction accuracy was low for all scenarios. Main conclusions The potential impact of positional uncertainty in species occurrences on the predictions of SDMs can be understood by comparing it with the spatial autocorrelation range in predictor variables. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Ujvari Z.,Hungarian Natural History Musem |
Moradian H.,Science and Research Branch |
Ostovan H.,Science and Research Branch
Zoology in the Middle East | Year: 2013
A new species of Prozercon Sellnick, 1943, P. iranensis sp.n., is described on the basis of material collected in Iran. The new species is morphologically related to P. dominiaki Błaszak, 1979, but can easily be distinguished from the latter by the unusual form of opisthonotal setae and the different position of glands gdZ3. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Ostadzadeh S.S.,Science and Research Branch |
Rahmani A.M.,Science and Research Branch
Innovations in Computing Sciences and Software Engineering | Year: 2010
Nowadays, the Operating System (OS) isn't only the software that runs your computer. In the typical information-driven organization, the operating system is part of a much larger platform for applications and data that extends across the LAN, WAN and Internet. An OS cannot be an island unto itself; it must work with the rest of the enterprise. Enterprise wide applications require an Enterprise Operating System (EOS). Enterprise operating systems used in an enterprise have brought about an inevitable tendency to lunge towards organizing their information activities in a comprehensive way. In this respect, Enterprise Architecture (EA) has proven to be the leading option for development and maintenance of enterprise operating systems. EA clearly provides a thorough outline of the whole information system comprising an enterprise. To establish such an outline, a logical framework needs to be laid upon the entire information system. Zachman Framework (ZF) has been widely accepted as a standard scheme for identifying and organizing descriptive representations that have prominent roles in enterprise-wide system development. In this paper, we propose a framework based on ZF for enterprise operating systems. The presented framework helps developers to design and justify completely integrated business, IT systems, and operating systems which results in improved project success rate. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.
Shavakh S.,Science and Research Branch |
Ghalandari Kavkani S.,Science and Research Branch |
Nouri J.,Science and Research Branch
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013
The present study aims to estimate lead and copper metals content in four medicinal plants collected from different sites of Saveh region located in south western of Tehran, in June and August 2010. Samples of Eucalyptus globules, Mentha piperita, Thymus vulgaris and Rosa damascena were separately collected from different locations and prepared in laboratory. Lead and copper content were measured in each samples using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that lead content was the highest in Mentha piperita and the lowest was in T. vulgaris. However, T. vulgaris and E. globulus contained the highest and the lowest levels of copper, respectively. Overall, despite of vital advantages of studied medicinal plants, heavy metals contamination prevent of therapeutic uses of these plants which may result in fatal effects on human health.
Khaki S.,Science and Research Branch
International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature | Year: 2013
WTC is very important for English learners. Without WTC it is impossible to use the target language. On the other hand, developing learner autonomy as the independence in one’s own learning is considered a crucial goal of education. More important than that learner autonomy in WTC is a necessity that has to be considered in language education. In this study, the researcher investigated whether there is any statistically significant relationship between learner autonomy and WTC in Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 77 English learners were homogenized out of 100 advanced learners. A learner autonomy questionnaire and a WTC scale, for measuring trait-like WTC, was given to them; and they were observed, for measuring situational WTC, for 6 sessions. The quantitative data gathered through these instruments were analyzed to determine the degree of correlation between these two constructs. The results demonstrated a significant and strong relationship between learner autonomy and trait-like WTC in Iranian EFL learners and a significant but weak correlation between learner autonomy and situational WTC in Iranian EFL learners. So it can be concluded that a significant relationship between learner autonomy and WTC can be seen in Iranian EFL learners. The regression analysis provided further support for this result. © Australian International Academic Centre, Australia.
Yadegari H.,K. N. Toosi University of Technology |
Jabbari A.,K. N. Toosi University of Technology |
Heli H.,Science and Research Branch |
Heli H.,Islamic Azad University at Science and Research of Fars
Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry | Year: 2012
Nanoparticles of lithiumcobalt oxide (LiCoO 2) and nanosheets of lithium vanadium oxide (LiV 3O 8) were synthesized by a citrate sol-gel combustion route. The physical characterizations of the electrodic materials were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and also X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Near spherical nanoparticles of 100 nm and compact nanosheets with a few nanometers thick were observed by SEM and TEM for LiCoO 2 and LiV 3O 8, respectively. XRD data indicated that the asprepared active materials presented pure phase of rhombohedral LiCoO 2 with R-3m symmetry and monoclinic LiV 3O 8 with p21/m symmetry. The kinetics of electrochemical intercalation of lithium ion into the nanoparticles of LiCoO 2 and nanosheets of LiV 3O 8 from 1.0 mol l-1 LiNO3 aqueous solution were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. An aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery consisting of LiCoO 2 nanoparticles as positive and LiV 3O 8 nanosheets as negative electrode was assembled. This battery represented a discharge voltage of about 1 V with good cycling performance. © Springer-Verlag 2011.