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Ismail H.,Science and Engineering Research Center | Ahmad Z.,International Islamic University Malaysia
Polymer - Plastics Technology and Engineering | Year: 2014

In this work, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were hybridized with kenaf core fibers (KCF) to reinforce low density polyethylene (LDPE)/thermoplastic sago starch (TPSS) blends. The effects of HNT loading (3-15 wt.%) on the mechanical and physical properties were examined. The results showed an enhancement in tensile strength and modulus with the inclusion of HNTs. Formation of FTIR bands that are assigned to Al-OH and Si-O vibrations indicated the presence of HNTs in the system. Moreover, the thermal stability of hybrid composites was improved with the addition of HNTs. Water uptake decreased as higher amount of HNTs imparted to the hybrid composites. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Ismail H.,Science and Engineering Research Center | Ahmad Z.,International Islamic University Malaysia
Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials | Year: 2015

The disposal problems associated with the conventional plastic have imposed a long-standing quest of developing the degradable material. Indeed, blending of conventional plastic with renewable resources as the base materials is an attempt of imparting some level of biodegradability on the resulting composites. Thus, for this study, the effect of plasticized sago starch (plasticized) incorporation on the properties of low-density polyethylene (LDPE)-reinforced with kenaf core fiber (KCF) was evaluated. The ratio of LDPE/KCF was fixed at 80/20 and blended with the thermoplastic sago starch (TPSS) content ranging from 10 to 40 wt%. The blended samples were characterized by means of mechanical performance, Fourier transform infrared analysis, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry behavior, water uptake, and morphological properties. The experimental result shows that there is a gradual decrease in tensile strength, modulus, and elongation at break with an increase in TPSS loading. The degree of dispersion and adhesion of TPSS in LDPE/KCF composites revealed by scanning electron micrograph supports the findings of tensile properties. The thermal stability of the composite was clearly improved with the addition of TPSS. However, water uptake and hydrophilic character of the composite system tended to augment as the TPSS imparted to the composites. © The Author(s) 2013.


Ismail H.,Science and Engineering Research Center | Ahmad Z.,International Islamic University Malaysia
Advances in Environmental Biology | Year: 2014

This present work demonstrated the potential of halloysiteclay (HC) hybridized with kenaf core fibers (KCF) to reinforce the low density polyethylene (LDPE)/thermoplastic sago starch (TPSS) blends. The effects of HC loading (3-15 phr) on the mechanical, thermal and morphological properties were evaluated. The results depicted that Young's modulus was improved significantly with the inclusion of HCs.A maximum tensile strength of 7.2 MPa was obtained at 12 phr HC loading. Accordingly, the hybrid composites were characterized by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The thermal stability of hybrid composites was found to be enhanced with the addition of HCs. Morphological findings showed that samples containing 12 phr of halloysite clay had better dispersion. © 2014 AENSI Publisher All rights reserved.


Ismail H.,Science and Engineering Research Center | Ahmad Z.,International Islamic University Malaysia
Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals | Year: 2014

The landfill disposal of a high volume of plastics that take a long time to decompose has led to a tremendous environmental problem. Incorporation of natural polymers and fibers into synthetic polymers accelerates the degradation rate by exposure to atmospheric agents such as sunlight, temperature and rainfall. In this work, thermoplastic sago starch (TPSS) and kenaf core fibers (KCF) from agricultural feed stocks were blended with low density polyethylene (LDPE) for natural weathering studies. The melt-mixed and compressed composite sheets had fiber loadings ranging from 0 to 40 wt.%, and were exposed to natural weathering conditions for a period of 3 and 6 months. The deterioration in mechanical, thermal, morphological and weight properties were investigated. © 2014 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Sarifuddin N.,Science and Engineering Research Center | Ismail H.,Science and Engineering Research Center | Ahmad Z.,International Islamic University Malaysia
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

Recently, blending of common hydrocarbon polymer with natural based materials has gain much interest towards the development of degradable composite. In this study, a series of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/thermoplastic sago starch (TPSS) blend reinforced with kenaf core fiber (KCF) with starch content ranging from 10 to 40% were prepared via melt-blending method. For this study, kenaf loading was fixed at 20% (by weight). The blended samples were characterized by means of tensile test and morphological study. The experimental result shows that there is a gradual decrease in tensile strength, modulus and elongation at break with increase in starch loading. The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) supports the findings of tensile properties. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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