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Berry J.A.,science | Fan Q.-H.,Health Diagnostic Laboratory
Systematic and Applied Acarology | Year: 2012

The status of the tenuipalpid mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in New Zealand was previously uncertain. New collection records suggest that this mite is established, at least in the northern North Island. Brevipalpus phoenicis is known to vector a number of plant diseases caused by Rhabdoviriidae (Mononegavirales), including some known to cause serious damage to food crops such as Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV), Passion fruit green spot virus (PFGSV) and Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV). None of the diseases vectored by this mite are known to be present in New Zealand. Consequently B. phoenicis should still be considered of concern to New Zealand's biosecurity under some circumstances. © 2012 Systematic & Applied Acarology Society. Source

Burbrink F.T.,CUNY - College of Staten Island | Burbrink F.T.,City University of New York | Yao H.,science | Ingrasci M.,University of Texas at Arlington | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

Studies of speciation and taxon delimitation are usually decoupled. Combining these methods provides a stronger theoretical ground for recognizing new taxa and understanding processes of speciation. Using coalescent methods, we examine speciation, post-speciation population demographics, and taxon delimitation in the Arizona Mountain Kingsnake (Lampropeltis pyromelana), a species restricted to high elevations in southwestern United States and northern Mexico (SW). These methods provide a solid foundation for understanding how biogeographic barriers operate at the regional scale in the SW. Bayesian species delimitation methods, using three loci from samples of L. pyromelana taken throughout their range, show strong support for the existence of two species that are separated by low elevation habitats found between the Colorado Plateau/ Mogollon Rim and the Sierra Madre Occidental. Our results suggest an allopatric mode of speciation given the near absence of gene flow over time, which resulted in two lineages of unequal population sizes. Speciation likely occurred prior to the Pleistocene, during the aridification of the SW and/or the uplift of the Colorado Plateau, and while these species occupy similar high-elevation niches, they are isolated by xeric conditions found in the intervening low deserts. Furthermore, post-speciation demographics suggest that populations of both lineages were not negatively impacted by climate change throughout the Pleistocene. Finally, our results suggest that at least for this group, where divergence is old and gene flow is low, Bayesian species delimitation performs well. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Lowther A.D.,SARDI Aquatic Sciences Center | Lowther A.D.,Norwegian Polar Institute | Harcourt R.G.,Macquarie University | Page B.,science | Goldsworthy S.D.,SARDI Aquatic Sciences Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region. © 2013 Lowther et al. Source

The formal inclusion of commercial forestry in South Australia's law governing the use of water is a significant development. This legal outcome was the result of a relatively strong discussion between scientists and policy and law makers in South Australia that dates back to mid-19th century. As part of this process, water cannot be viewed in isolation, but needs to be considered within the broader context of the management and use of land, water and biodiversity at a range of scales, ecosystems, landscape, basin and catchment. The challenge for the legislators is to ensure that while the legal mechanism allows relevant factual and scientific content to be received and applied in a way that may result in individual rights and responsibilities changing, the underlying principles and rules governing when and how such changes should be made are clear, consistent and not vulnerable to weak or political climate. The creation of such laws and their administration demands a strong and consistent dialogue between scientists, policy makers and lawyers. Source

Eckelman M.J.,Northeastern University | Mauter M.S.,science | Isaacs J.A.,Northeastern University | Elimelech M.,Yale University
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Environmental impacts due to engineered nanomaterials arise both from releases of the nanomaterials themselves as well as from their synthesis. In this work, we employ the USEtox model to quantify and compare aquatic ecotoxicity impacts over the life cycle of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). USEtox is an integrated multimedia fate, transport, and toxicity model covering large classes of organic and inorganic substances. This work evaluates the impacts of non-CNT emissions from three methods of synthesis (arc ablation, CVD, and HiPco), and compares these to the modeled ecotoxicity of CNTs released to the environment. Parameters for evaluating CNT ecotoxicity are bounded by a highly conservative "worst case" scenario and a "realistic" scenario that draws from existing literature on CNT fate, transport, and ecotoxicity. The results indicate that the ecotoxicity impacts of nanomaterial production processes are roughly equivalent to the ecotoxicity of CNT releases under the unrealistic worst case scenario, while exceeding the results of the realistic scenario by 3 orders of magnitude. Ecotoxicity from production processes is dominated by emissions of metals from electricity generation. Uncertainty exists for both production and release stages, and is modeled using a combination of Monte Carlo simulation and scenario analysis. The results of this analysis underscore the contributions of existing work on CNT fate and transport, as well as the importance of life cycle considerations in allocating time and resources toward research on mitigating the impacts of novel materials. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

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