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Yvon-Durocher G.,Queen Mary, University of London | Montoya J.M.,Queen Mary, University of London | Montoya J.M.,Science 37 | Trimmer M.,Queen Mary, University of London | Woodward G.,Queen Mary, University of London
Global Change Biology | Year: 2011

Organism size is one of the key determinants of community structure, and its relationship with abundance can describe how biomass is partitioned among the biota within an ecosystem. An outdoor freshwater mesocosm experiment was used to determine how warming of~4°C would affect the size, biomass and taxonomic structure of planktonic communities. Warming increased the steepness of the community size spectrum by increasing the prevalence of small organisms, primarily within the phytoplankton assemblage and it also reduced the mean and maximum size of phytoplankton by approximately one order of magnitude. The observed shifts in phytoplankton size structure were reflected in changes in phytoplankton community composition, though zooplankton taxonomic composition was unaffected by warming. Furthermore, warming reduced community biomass and total phytoplankton biomass, although zooplankton biomass was unaffected. This resulted in an increase in the zooplankton to phytoplankton biomass ratio in the warmed mesocosms, which could be explained by faster turnover within the phytoplankton assemblages. Overall, warming shifted the distribution of phytoplankton size towards smaller individuals with rapid turnover and low standing biomass, resulting in a reorganization of the biomass structure of the food webs. These results indicate future environmental warming may have profound effects on the structure and functioning of aquatic communities and ecosystems. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

According to an understanding of casual conversation articulated by various theories of discourse analysis including Conversation Analysis (Sacks et al., 1974), pragmatics (Levinson, 1983) and politeness theory (Brown and Levinson, 1987), it is extremely unlikely that silence would ever be regarded as an appropriate response to a question or accusation. Yet, in the specialised institutional setting of a police interview, it is expected by the legislators in many jurisdictions that ordinary people will be able to access this interactional resource unproblematically, and presumably without any assumption of listener prejudice.An analysis of the interactional strategies of police interview participants in 13 police interviews recorded in Victoria, Australia demonstrates that the contributions of the suspect are highly constrained in a number of ways, including allowable turn types and the management of topic initiations. If assumptions about 'preferred responses' based on ordinary conversation are used to interpret non-response in this particular institutional setting, then these interactionally restricted contributions, which will be presented as evidence, may be susceptible to adverse inference in a way that is unlikely to be addressed by the judicial system. This paper concludes that by applying principles of pragmatics, and in particular the use of preference, it is possible to present a case against the erosion of the defendant's right to silence. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Naldoni A.,CNR Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies | Allieta M.,University of Milan | Santangelo S.,University of Reggio Calabria | Marelli M.,CNR Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

The increasing need for new materials capable of solar fuel generation is central in the development of a green energy economy. In this contribution, we demonstrate that black TiO 2 nanoparticles obtained through a one-step reduction/crystallization process exhibit a bandgap of only 1.85 eV, which matches well with visible light absorption. The electronic structure of black TiO 2 nanoparticles is determined by the unique crystalline and defective core/disordered shell morphology. We introduce new insights that will be useful for the design of nanostructured photocatalysts for energy applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Tesic M.,Science 37 | Kiss F.,University of Novi Sad | Zavargo Z.,University of Novi Sad
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

The aim of this paper is to give insight into the goals, instruments and planned measures of the Serbian Government in the field of renewable energy sources (RES). The method is based on an overview and analysis of adopted laws and regulations and other official documents. The results have revealed that progress has been made in this field in recent years. Midterm targets for the proportion of energy from RES in overall energy consumption have been defined; feed-in-tariffs have been adopted; legislative and socio-economic barriers of increased exploitation of RES have been analyzed and measures and activities were suggested for their resolution. The existing RES-related legislation, however, is imprecise and incomplete. Numerous bylaws, technical standards and guidelines are still outstanding. The key RES-related documents are inconsistent, lack clarity and are insufficiently decisive when implementing specific measures of incentives for production of RES-based energy. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Mehrad B.,University of Virginia | Clark N.M.,Loyola University | Zhanel G.G.,University of Manitoba | Lynch J.P.,Science 37
Chest | Year: 2015

Aerobic gram-negative bacilli, including the family of Enterobacteriaceae and non-lactose fermenting bacteria such as Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter species, are major causes of hospital-acquired infections. The rate of antibiotic resistance among these pathogens has accelerated dramatically in recent years and has reached pandemic scale. It is no longer uncommon to encounter gram-negative infections that are untreatable using conventional antibiotics in hospitalized patients. In this review, we provide a summary of the major classes of gram-negative bacilli and their key mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance, discuss approaches to the treatment of these diffi cult infections, and outline methods to slow the further spread of resistance mechanisms. © 2015 American College Of Chest Physicians.

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