Budisantoso T.,National Institute for Physiological science |
Budisantoso T.,Graduate University for Advanced Studies |
Harada H.,National Institute for Physiological science |
Kamasawa N.,National Institute for Physiological science |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2013
Establishing the spatiotemporal concentration profile of neurotransmitter following synaptic vesicular release is essential for our understanding of inter-neuronal communication. Such profile is a determinant of synaptic strength, short-term plasticity and inter-synaptic crosstalk. Synaptically released glutamate has been suggested to reach a few millimolar in concentration and last for <1 ms. The synaptic cleft is often conceived as a single concentration compartment, whereas a huge gradient likely exists. Modelling studies have attempted to describe this gradient, but two key parameters, the number of glutamate in a vesicle (NGlu) and its diffusion coefficient (DGlu) in the extracellular space, remained unresolved. To determine this profile, the rat calyx of Held synapse at postnatal day 12-16 was studied where diffusion of glutamate occurs two-dimensionally and where quantification of AMPA receptor distribution on individual postsynaptic specialization on medial nucleus of the trapezoid body principal cells is possible using SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica labelling. To assess the performance of these receptors as glutamate sensors, a kinetic model of the receptors was constructed from outside-out patch recordings. From here, we simulated synaptic responses and compared them with the EPSC recordings. Combinations of NGlu and DGlu with an optimum of 7000 and 0.3 μm2 ms-1 reproduced the data, suggesting slow diffusion. Further simulations showed that a single vesicle does not saturate the synaptic receptors, and that glutamate spillover does not affect the conductance amplitude at this synapse. Using the estimated profile, we also evaluated how the number of multiple vesicle releases at individual active zones affects the amplitude of postsynaptic signals. © 2012 The Physiological Society. Source
SCI Solution | Date: 2012-12-11
Vinogradov V.V.,SCI Solution |
Agafonov A.V.,SCI Solution |
Vinogradov A.V.,Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology
Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology | Year: 2010
Superhydrophobic films were obtained on the basis of sol-gel-derived titania or alumina/dodecylamine hybrid materials. It has been shown that wettability of surfaces of the inorganic oxides changes from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic. For superhydrophobic materials, the surface roughness of the hybrid films on the basis of titania and alumina is 39 and 55 μm, respectively, and water contact angle is about 150°. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009. Source
SCI Solution | Date: 2013-11-19
Beers; Mineral and Aerated Waters; Non-alcoholic Drinks, Namely, Carbonated Beverages, Beverages Containing Fruit Juices, Non-alcoholic Cocktail Mixes, and Fruit Juice Beverages; Fruit Drinks and Fruit Juices; Syrups and Syrup Substitutes for Making Beverages; Non-alcoholic Essences not in the Nature of Essential Oils for Making Beverages; Preparations for Making Beverages, Namely, Carbonated Beverages, Non-carbonated Beverages, Beverages Containing Fruit Juices, Non-alcoholic Cocktail Mixes, and Non-alcoholic Fruit Juice Beverages; Concentrates and Powders for Making Beverages, Namely, Non-alcoholic Carbonated Beverages, Non-alcoholic Beverages Containing Fruit Juices, Non-alcoholic Cocktail Mixes, and Non-alcoholic Fruit Juice Beverages; Energy Drinks, Namely, Non-alcoholic Beverages Enriched with Vitamins and Amino Acids and Infused with Herbal Extracts not for Medical Use.
SCI Solution | Date: 2015-09-16
Beers; mineral and other non-alcoholic drinks; energy drinks; sports drinks; fruit drinks; fruit juices; syrups and other preparations for making fruit juice beverages; non-alcoholic fruit extracts for use in making beverages; drinking waters; lemonades; non-alcoholic cocktails.