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Noldgen M.,Cologne University of Applied Sciences | Zillessen K.,Schussler Plan Ingenieurgesellschaft MbH | Mullers I.,Schussler Plan Ingenieurgesellschaft MbH | Hehle T.,TH CADKON
Bautechnik | Year: 2014

BIM in Building Structures - Effects on Structural Engineering Building information modeling - shortly called BIM - is currently very popular among architects, civil engineers and the building industry. Everybody knows it, everybody does it and every software is surely BIM-capable, but nearly everybody has a different interpretation of BIM. The authors of this report tackle this topic from the structural engineer's point of view. They show what the state-of-the-practice from their point of view is and describe how BIM is changing the way of working for structural engineers. The authors adopt not only the perspective of engineers, but also of draftsmen. It is shown that BIM forces engineers to stop using their usual plane structural models and to start consequently using spatial models. In the near future draftsmen will stop drawing buildings by lines, but they will start to design buildings by using intelligent objects. © 2014 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.

Bach A.,Schussler Plan Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH | Stolz A.,Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institut | Noldgen M.,Cologne University of Applied Sciences | Thoma K.,Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institut
Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures, FraMCoS 2013 | Year: 2013

For the modeling of reinforced concrete structures under quasi-static, dynamic and impulsive loading different approaches are commonly used within the analysis, such as the Single Degree Of Freedom (SDOF) approach, finite element methods using implicit or explicit methods and hydrocode simulations. The proposed paper sates the possibility for the description of the structural dynamic behavior of reinforced concrete using two different SDOF Method based on experimental shock tube tests on single-span reinforced concrete-slabs and analyses their applicability regarding plastic hinge formation. Furthermore studies on the effects of preloading for a representative structural element will be carried out, which allow for an indication of the influence of preload on the dynamic resistance of structural elements. This will help to analyse reinforced concrete from the quasi-static to the dynamic and impulsive domain of response at different loading rates under preloaded conditions.

Noldgen M.,Cologne University of Applied Sciences | Harder J.,Schussler Plan Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH | Wassmann W.,Schussler Plan Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH
IABSE Conference, Geneva 2015: Structural Engineering: Providing Solutions to Global Challenges - Report | Year: 2015

In the 2010s, roughly twenty years after 3D-based Computer Aided Engineering and Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) was introduced in industrial applications, the construction industry is about to start applications with comparable virtual models called Building Information Models (BIM). However the term BIM allows for a broad variety of definitions starting from a simple approach, the so-called "Little BIM", where only one single stakeholders use the term for a proprietary 3D-CAD-Model. The upper extreme is called "Big BIM" representing a continuously synchronized and updated spatial model enriched by various kinds of information, allocated in a collaborative database where not only single tasks but also interdependencies and data evolution is precisely developed over the whole building lifecycle. The presented work is a contribution on closing the current GAP between little BIM and big BIM by using an inductive engineering approach. Virtual Building Information Models of current bridge projects are presented. They have been investigated and developed with a bottom-up method. The work has been carried out as academic pilot projects with support and coaching by professional engineers to point out - the requirements for a route-bound 3D-CAD-Model as a basis for virtual BIM and the construction, - the current achievements, benefits and challenges of 3D-Computer Aided Engineering, - recommendation for an appropriate building information setting and comprehensive processing.

Noldgen M.,Schussler Plan Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH | Noldgen M.,Cologne University of Applied Sciences | Fehling E.,University of Kassel | Riedel W.,Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institut | Thoma K.,Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institut
Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering | Year: 2012

Ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) is particularly suitable for application in aircraft-impact-resistant high-rise buildings for combined load-bearing and protective structures. The material provides very high-steel-like-compressive strength, sufficient ductility, and fire resistance due to the addition of steel and polypropylene fibers. The following contribution is focused on two key aspects: hydro-code simulations of structural UHPC walls which protect vertical escape and rescue routes and structural dynamic simulations of the global structure to investigate the impact resistance considering the sudden loss of external columns. A high-speed dynamic material model for UHPC is obtained by implementing the results of a series of Hopkinson-Bar experiments which were recently published. The strain-rate-dependent material properties are implemented in the established RHT-Concrete-Model for hydro-code applications being furthermore extended by a tensile softening law for fiber-reinforced UHPC. Based on this material model a series of aircraft-engine impact experiments are configurated supported by three-dimensional nonlinear hydro-code prognosis simulations. With a total of six impact experiments on combined fiber- and rebar-reinforced UHPC panels, all relevant damage states of the structural wall are obtained. The experimental results are compared to the hydro-code prognosis simulations to validate the simulative approach and the material model for UHPC. In addition to the local impact behavior, structural dynamic numerical simulations of a global high-rise structure are presented being focused on the effect of the sudden and notional loss of columns in coincidence with the aircraft impact load function. © 2012 Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SEC-2013.4.2-1 | Award Amount: 13.94M | Year: 2015

Crisis incidents result in difficult working conditions for Urban Search-and-Rescue (USaR) crews. INACHUS aims to achieve a significant time reduction and increase efficiency in USaR operations by providing: 1.Simulation tools for estimating the locations of survival spaces (after a structural collapse) and identify the location of survivors for different construction types and building materials 2.Decision and planning modules for advanced casualty and damage estimation that will be based on input coming from airborne and ground-based laser-scanning and imaging data 3.Integration of i) existing and novel sensors (electromagnetic, vision, chemical) for detecting and high-accurate localisation and ii) mobile phones signals for estimating the number of the trapped humans 4.A snake robot mechanism (integrated with the sensors) to penetrate inside the rubble to locate more accurately trapped victims 5.A robust, resilient and interoperable communication platform to ensure that the sensors data can reach the command center 6.Enhanced data analysis techniques and 3-D visualization tool of the mission place to be operated by the crisis managers and the decision makers. A suitable decision support system will be used for planning & managing complex USaR operations 7.System Integration of all the aforementioned software and hardware subcomponents (INACHUS platform) 8.Contribution to standards: interaction with international organizations and public authorities in the fields of USaR, through an early defined and developed User Group, to ensure strong links with the user communities and standardisation bodies 9.Consideration of societal impacts and legal/ethical issues of the proposed solution at the onset of the project feeding into the technical solutions 10.Numerous field and simulated tests properly designed and executed for presenting the capabilities of the INACHUS integrated platform 11.Appropriate training package and extensive training courses to the First Responders.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SEC-2010.2.3-1 | Award Amount: 4.52M | Year: 2011

The vulnerability of urban environments remains an undeveloped theme. With half of the worlds population currently living in urban centres, and with this figure set to increase to two-thirds by 2050, the issue of security and citizen safety is of paramount importance and a growing concern. In view of the growing number of threats from global terrorism, natural disasters or crime, urban planning practice must incorporate appropriate security measures for vulnerability identification and resilience enhancements. Urban planning is a process involving numerous stakeholders and multi-disciplinary teams. Although the use of software tools plays a significant role in this complex process, yet, none exist that take into consideration the security (and connected safety) aspects of urban planning as a whole. Urban planning teams need tools that fully encompass the pre-application process with developers/designers, and facilitate flexible solutions, not imposed measures. The objective of VITRUV is the development of software tools for the long and complex screening process, which is urban planning, moving across three levels from concept to plan to detail design. Based on an all hazard risk approach, the tools will enable planners to make well-considered systematic qualitative decisions (concept level), to analyse the susceptibility of urban spaces (e.g. building types, squares, public transport, and their functionalities) with respect to new threats (plan level), and to perform vulnerability analyses of urban spaces by computing the likely damage on individuals, buildings, traffic infrastructure (detail level). All levels (concept, plan and detail) will contribute to enabling the development of more robust and resilient space in the field of urban (re)planning/(re)design/(re)engineering. Planners who use VITRUVs tools will be able to deliver urban space less prone to and less affected by attacks and disasters, thus sustainably improving the security of citizens

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2012.2.1-1 | Award Amount: 5.29M | Year: 2013

The overall objective of the ELASSTIC project is to improve the security and resilience of large scale multifunctional building complexes to natural and man-made disasters by providing a methodology and tools which enable to include security and resilience from the early design and planning phase of such projects. The ELASSTIC concept proposed is based upon the following key features: 1) A comprehensive approach for designing safe, secure and resilient large scale built infrastructures 2) A set of tools to enable architects, structural engineers and building installation engineers to assess the safety, security and resilience of designs and to optimize the integral design 3) Coupling and integration of these tools into Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology resulting in extended BIM technology (BIM\) 4) Smart and reinforced building elements, to measure the actual building condition combined with an increased bearing capacity and resistance 5) Coupling and integration of BIM and BMS (Building Management System) 6) Real time information on the safety, security and resilience of infrastructure Validation of the approach and developed tools will be done by evaluation the design of a multifunctional, resilient, large scale urban complex (anno 2020), called the ELASSTIC complex. This large multifunctional complex combines housing, shopping centre, transport node, business centre and entertainment centre. The ELASSTIC complex will not only be secure and resilient to disasters, it will also be designed to ensure fast and efficient evacuation in case of a disaster. For a crowded complex comprising a large number of people, the design of a smart evacuation system should be included at the start of the design of the complex. Taking evacuation and safety installations into account in the design phase will increase safety and is less expensive compared to an evacuation system integrated after the complex is build or at the final design stage.

Jas H.,7asConsult BV | Stahl M.,Schussler Plan Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH | Te Kamp L.,ITASCA Consultants GmbH | Konietzky H.,TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Oliver T.,Tensar International
Geotechnical Engineering for Infrastructure and Development - Proceedings of the XVI European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, ECSMGE 2015 | Year: 2015

This paper presents a procedure to simulate and analyse the behaviour of a geogrid embedded between a weak sub-grade and granular material and loaded with a passing wheel-load using PFC3D based on the specifications and under special consideration of the grain-size distribution, initial relative density, normal stress state as well as sample installation. The aim of this simulation is to learn how triaxial geogrids behave and what parameters are imperative for their fitness for use. Apart from the actual movements of the granular particles, model analysis of the geogrid behaviour and load dissipation is presented to understand the critical characteristics of triaxial geogrids. © The authors and ICE Publishing: All rights reserved, 2015.

Jas H.,7asConsult BV | Stahl M.,Schussler Plan Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH | Te Kamp L.,ITASCA Consultants GmbH | Konietzky H.,TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Oliver T.,Tensar International
Geotechnical Engineering for Infrastructure and Development - Proceedings of the XVI European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, ECSMGE 2015 | Year: 2015

The paper describes how numerical and tests have been conducted to reproduce the behaviour of geogrids embedded in granular material under special consideration of the grain-size, relative density, normal stress and installation. Granular soils and geogrids are simulated depending on a specific particle and parallel bond model and calibrated to the results of laboratory tests. An analysis is given of the actual deformations and stresses within the granular material during and after the loading The above knowledge and experience has been used to simulate a wheel passing over a stabilised sub-base on a weak sub-grade. The ultimate aim of this research is to learn how geogrids behave and what parameters are imperative for their fitness for use. © The authors and ICE Publishing: All rights reserved, 2015.

Stolz A.,Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institut | Riedel W.,Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institut | Noeldgen M.,Schussler Plan Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH | Laubach A.,Schussler Plan Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2012

Aircraft impact is a decisive load case for critical infrastructure as high-rise buildings in prestigious large-scale urban developments or nuclear power plants. The proposed paper introduces new concepts based on high performance concretes (HPC, UHPC) for the example of the 'Security Scraper'[1,2] and an innovative superstructure for existing power plants [3,4]. Key analysis steps using Two-Degree-of-Freedom (TDOF) and finite element (FEM) methods and their experimental validation [5] are used to predict dynamic response on local and global levels to maintain structural integrity under impact and to keep the fire outside the security zone. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

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