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Lelystad, Netherlands

Pedersen C.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Pedersen C.,Schothorst Feed Research | Lindberg J.E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

The digestibility of dietary components, amino acids and energy in growing pigs fed with wheat wet distillers solubles (WWDS) and wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (WDDGS) was studied in growing pigs fitted with a post valve T-caecum (PVTC) cannula. Eight PVTC cannulated pigs were used in a cross-over arrangement, with four animals per treatment. The coefficients of apparent ileal (CAID) and apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of dry matter, organic matter and energy decreased linearly (P< 0.05) in diets with increasing dietary inclusion of WWDS and WDDGS. The CAID of crude protein (CP) and fat were unaffected by the dietary inclusion level of WWDS and WDDGS. The CAID of all amino acids were unaffected by increasing dietary inclusion of WWDS and WDDGS. The coefficients of ileal standardized digestibility (CSID) of CP, lysine and histidine were higher (P< 0.05) in the WWDS product than in the WDDGS product, while the opposite was found for the CSID of methionine, cysteine, isoleucine, leucine and valine. The CSID of CP and phenylalanine in WWDS and WDDGS, and of lysine in WWDS were at the same level as those reported for wheat bran. However, the CSID of CP and essential amino acids were lower in WWDS and WDDGS than in wheat, wheat flour and wheat middlings. The digestibility values presented make it possible to formulate diets for pigs with inclusion of WWDS and WDDGS with better precision, in particular with respect to the supply of essential amino acids. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

van Knegsel A.T.M.,Wageningen University | van der Drift S.G.A.,Schothorst Feed Research | Horneman M.,CRV BV | de Roos A.P.W.,CRV BV | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to evaluate Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry to measure milk ketone bodies to detect hyperketonemic cows and compare this method with milk fat to protein ratio to detect hyperketonemia. Plasma and milk samples were obtained weekly from calving to wk 9 postpartum from 69 high-producing dairy cows. The reference test for hyperketonemia was defined as plasma concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) ≥1,200 μmol/L. The weekly prevalence of hyperketonemia during the first 9 wk of lactation was, on average, 7.1%. Both BHBA and acetone in milk, determined by FTIR, had a higher sensitivity (80%) to detect hyperketonemia compared with milk fat to protein ratio (66%). Specificity was similar for the 3 diagnostic tests (71, 70, and 71%). In conclusion, FTIR predictions of BHBA or acetone in milk can detect cows with hyperketonemia in early lactation with a higher accuracy compared with the use of milk fat to protein ratio. Because of the high proportion of false-positive tests, there are concerns about the practical applicability of FTIR predictions of acetone, BHBA, and fat to protein ratio in milk to detect hyperketonemic cows. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Colman E.,Ghent University | Tas B.M.,Schothorst Feed Research | Waegeman W.,Ghent University | De Baets B.,Ghent University | Fievez V.,Ghent University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

Daily ruminal pH variation can be summarized by a cumulative logistic curve based on the amount of time below multiple pH points and characterized by 2 parameters (β0 and β1). Moreover, rumen pH variation affects the rumen microbiome as well as the biohydrogenation pathways resulting in a modified secretion of milk fatty acids (FA). The aims of this study were to assess the shifts in milk FA due to rumen pH changes and to estimate the relationship between milk FA and the 2 parameters of the logistic curve. The data consisted of milk samples of 2 experiments. In experiment 1, 3 cows were subjected to 5 treatments in which the type and amount of concentrate were changed during 33 d: (1) control diet 1, (2) stepwise replacement of a standard concentrate (CONC) by a CONC rich in rapidly fermentable carbohydrates, (3) increase in the total amount of CONC, (4) treatment with a buffer solution, and (5) control diet 2. A 3×3 Latin square design with 3 cows was used in the second experiment. During the first 14 d of each period, the cows received a control diet with a standard CONC, whereas in the last 7 d the standard CONC was replaced step-by-step by a CONC rich in rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and the amount of CONC was increased. During each period, a different buffer treatment was added to the diet. Milk FA and pH reacted similarly in both experiments: decreasing proportions of iso FA and increasing proportions of odd-chain FA were observed. However, an abrupt change to a 76% CONC diet as for one cow of experiment 1 led to almost a 10-fold increase in C18:1 trans-10 (0.79 vs. 6.75g/100g of FA). In experiment 2, the stepwise approach of adding CONC and the continuous supplementation of buffer led to minimal increases in C18:1 trans-10 and decreases in rumen pH compared with the diet with standard CONC only. Fatty acid proportions were influenced by the level of rumen pH (β1) or the rumen pH variation (β0), or both. High proportions of C18:1 trans-10 (above 4g/100g of FA) occurred with low and largely fluctuating pH (low β1, low β0), whereas situations with low, stable pH (low β1, great β0) did not induce a shift toward the secondary biohydrogenation pathway. C18:1 trans-11 and C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 were only influenced by the pH variation and not by the average pH, whereas iso C14:0 and iso C16:0 FA were only dependent on the average pH and not influenced by diurnal pH variation. Overall, milk FA changes were related to pH changes; however, this relationship is not straightforward and needs further research. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Almond K.,University of Nottingham | Bikker P.,Schothorst Feed Research | Lomax M.,University of Nottingham | Symonds M.E.,University of Nottingham | Mostyn A.,University of Nottingham
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society | Year: 2012

The consequences of sub-optimal nutrition through alterations in the macronutrient content of the maternal diet will not simply be reflected in altered neonatal body composition and increased mortality, but are likely to continue into adulthood and confer greater risk of metabolic disease. One mechanism linking manipulations of the maternal environment to an increased risk of later disease is enhanced fetal exposure to glucocorticoids (GC). Tissue sensitivity to cortisol is regulated, in part, by the GC receptor and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) types 1 and 2. Several studies have shown the effects of maternal undernutrition, particularly low-protein diets, on the programming of GC action in the offspring; however, dietary excess is far more characteristic of the diets consumed by contemporary pregnant women. This study investigated the programming effects of moderate protein supplementation in pigs throughout pregnancy. We have demonstrated an up-regulation of genes involved in GC sensitivity, such as GC receptor and 11β-HSD, in the liver, but have yet to detect any other significant changes in these piglets, with no differences observed in body weight or composition. This increase in GC sensitivity was similar to the programming effects observed following maternal protein restriction or global undernutrition during pregnancy. © 2011 The Authors. Source

Star L.,Schothorst Feed Research | van der Klis J.D.,Schothorst Feed Research | Rapp C.,Zinpro Animal Nutrition | Ward T.L.,Zinpro Corporation
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

The objective of the current study was to determine the bioavailability of an organic zinc source (Availa-Zn) compared with zinc sulfate in a European-type broiler diet. A total of 480 one-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were housed in 48 digestibility cages (10 birds per cage), being randomly divided over 9 treatments. At d 3, the number of birds was standardized to 8. Birds were fed a basal wheat-maize-soya diet (containing 33.5 mg of Zn/kg) with different supplementation levels of zinc (reference zinc source: inorganic zinc sulfate: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 40 mg of Zn/kg of feed; test zinc source: Availa-Zn: 0, 5, 10, 15 mg of Zn/kg of feed). Production performance and tibia zinc content were measured. There were no differences in production performance between the different zinc sources when fed to broilers until 21 d of age. Tibia zinc content was increased linearly with the dietary zinc content up to 20 mg/kg zinc sulfate. The relative biological value of organic zinc was 1.64 compared with zinc sulfate as a reference zinc source (1.00), as indicated by the slope ratio of the linear response curves for both zinc sources, using tibia zinc content as a response parameter. In a practical European broiler diet, the organic Availa-Zn had a higher bioavailability than inorganic zinc sulfate. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

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