Kluivers-Poodt M.,Wageningen University |
Gerritsen R.,Schothorst Feed Research B.V. |
van Nes A.,University Utrecht |
Langendijk P.,South Australian Research And Development Institute
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2010
Contents: The aim of this study was to monitor changes in cortisol levels in sows around the time of separation from their piglets, in two different intermittent suckling regimes, compared with that in conventionally weaned sows. Sows were either weaned at 21 days of lactation (CONT) or subjected to an intermittent suckling regime (IS) from 14 days of lactation onwards. Sows in the IS regimes were separated from their piglets for 12 h every day, either from 08:00 to 20:00 hours (IS12) or from 08:00 to 14:00 hours and 20:00 to 02:00 hours (IS6). Separation caused a transient increase in cortisol levels on the first (CONT and IS12) and second (IS12) day of separation, compared with a gradual decline from early morning when the sows were still continuously suckling. In IS6 sows, in contrast, the transient rise in cortisol levels after separation at 08:00 hours was observed on the first 3 days and also on day 7 of the IS regime. Cortisol parameters were correlated with peri-ovulatory characteristics like onset of oestrus, onset of the LH surge and time of ovulation. Onset of the LH surge was delayed in IS6 sows. In conclusion, increase in cortisol levels as a consequence of separation of sows and piglets, is an acute, incidental phenomenon in IS12 and CONT sows, but shows a repeated acute elevation in IS6 sows, possibly placing IS6 sows at a higher risk of influencing peri-ovulatory processes and developing cystic follicles. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Verlag.
Molist F.,Schothorst Feed Research B.V. |
van Oostrum M.,Schothorst Feed Research B.V. |
Perez J.F.,Autonomous University of Barcelona |
Mateos G.G.,Technical University of Madrid |
And 2 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2014
Traditionally, feeding highly digestible ingredients and including in-feed antibiotics as growth promoters has been recommended in piglets diets. However, the ban of in-feed antibiotics as growth promoters in many countries, together with the increases in price of many ingredients, favours the study of less complex diets in the post-weaning (PW) period. In this respect, the inclusion of dietary fibre (DF) as a mean to overcome problems associated with the weaning process might be of value. In PW piglet feed, functional characteristics of fibrous ingredients are likely more important than the chemical composition of the fibrous ingredients. This article reviews the functional effects of DF on the digestive tract of piglets during the PW period. Evidence presented in this review indicates that moderate levels of insoluble fibre sources preferably as coarse particle size and when pigs have a compromised health status, might have positive effects promoting gut health during the first two weeks after weaning. These positive effects might be associated with enhanced maturation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) as well as with the physical effect of DF on the growth of intestinal microbiota and the blocking of the adhesion of pathogenic bacteria to the GIT mucosa. On the other hand, inclusion of soluble and rapid fermentable fibre sources in the diet for the first two weeks after weaning, especially with early weaning in farms with poor health status, might be contraindicative due to the limited digestive capacity of the piglets. Once the pigs adapt to solid feed, higher amounts of soluble and fermentable fibre sources, can be gradually included in the diet to promote healthy fermentation of undigested nutrients and better absorption of SCFA by the colon mucosa. Under poor hygiene conditions, the level of fermentable fibre and CP content of the PW diets should be limited to avoid intestinal dysbiosis, which might increase the risk of post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD). © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Dersjant-Li Y.,Danisco |
Van De Belt K.,Schothorst Feed Research B.V. |
Van Der Klis J.D.,Schothorst Feed Research B.V. |
Kettunen H.,Alimetrics Ltd. |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2015
The objective of this study was to determine the response of broilers to the combination of multi-enzymes and direct-fed microbial (DFM) under commercial production settings. A total of 7,000 1-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were distributed over 10 pens (700 broilers/pen). Two dietary treatments were tested using complete randomized design, including a control diet and a test diet with addition of multi-enzymes (xylanase, amylase, and protease (XAP)] and DFM (a combination of spores from 3 strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens). Pelleted diets were offered ad libitum in 3 phases and water was freely available. During starter and grower phases (0 to 21 d), the enzyme and DFM combination resulted in improved FE (P < 0.05). During the finisher phase, higher feed intake and BW gain (P < 0.05) were observed for the test group. Overall, there were significantly higher feed intake, BW gain, and lower water-to-feed ratio in test group compared to the control group. This was related to improved (P < 0.05) modified production efficiency factor which was calculated based on final BW, survival rate, feeding period, and mortality-weight-corrected FCR. The test group had improved litter quality and a reduced foot-pad lesion score compared to the control. In addition, there was a tendency (P < 0.1) of reducing Clostridium perfringens population in cecal digesta and higher lactic acid content in the ileal digesta, when expressed on an as-is basis, in the test group. In this study, we demonstrated that using a multi-enzymes and DFM combination in the diet for broilers can result in improved FE in starter/grower phases and animal welfare parameters, and lead to improved production efficiency under commercial settings. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.
Amerah A.M.,DuPont Company |
Van De Belt K.,Schothorst Feed Research B.V. |
Van Der Klis J.D.,Schothorst Feed Research B.V.
Animal | Year: 2015
The aim of the present experiment was to examine the effect of different levels of rapeseed meal (RSM) and sunflower meal (SFM) and enzyme combination (endoxylanase and β-glucanase) on the production performance, carcass quality, gizzard development and digesta viscosity of broiler chickens. The experimental design was a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating three diet types containing different levels of RSM and SFM (low (L), medium (M) and high (H)) and two levels of enzyme inclusion (0 or 100 g/tonne diet to provide 1220 U xylanase and 152 U β-glucanase per kg diet). Broiler starter and grower/finisher diets were formulated, based on wheat and soya bean meal and containing 50, 50 and 80 g/kg RSM and 0, 50 and 60 g/kg SFM for L, M and H treatments, respectively, during starter period and 80, 80 and 120 g/kg RSM and 0, 80 and 100 g/kg SFM for L, M and H, respectively, during grower/finisher period, and each diet was fed ad libitum to eight pens of 20 male broilers each. During the starter period (1 to 21 days), birds fed the H treatment had lower (P<0.05) BW gain (BWG) compared with those fed the L and M treatments. Diet type also influenced (P<0.05) feed intake (FI). Feeding the H treatment reduced (P<0.05) FI compared with the M treatment. Diet type and enzyme supplementation had no effect (P>0.05) on feed conversion ratio (FCR). During the grower/finisher phase (22 to 42 day) and over the entire period (1 to 42 day) birds fed the H treatment had lower (P<0.05) BWG and higher (P<0.05) FCR compared with those fed the L and M diets. Enzyme supplementation improved (P<0.05) FCR compared with the unsupplemented diets. No interactions (P>0.05) between RSM and SFM inclusion level and enzyme supplementation were observed for any of the measured parameters at any period. Diet type and enzyme supplementation had no effect (P>0.05) on carcass traits, abdominal fat pad, breast meat yield and jejunal digesta viscosity. Diet type influenced (P=0.05) relative empty gizzard weight, where the H treatment had higher relative empty gizzard weight compared with the L treatment. Enzyme supplementation tended (P=0.10) to increase relative empty gizzard weight. The present data suggest that high inclusion of SFM and RSM negatively influenced broiler performance. Enzyme supplementation improved FCR at all levels of RSM and SFM included in this study, but did not recover the reduction in weight gain caused by high inclusion of RSM and SFM. © The Animal Consortium 2015.
Wealleans A.L.,DuPont Company |
Barnard L.P.,DuPont Company |
Romero L.F.,DuPont Company |
Kwakernaak C.,Schothorst Feed Research B.V.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2016
There is a recent trend to increase phytase dose from the traditional 500 FTU/kg to 750 or 1000 FTU/kg in poultry feed formulations, driven by high inorganic phosphorus prices and more bioefficacious phytases. This paper outlines a method for calculating optimum phytase dose, based on the replacement of inorganic phosphorus through the application of the marginal decision rule. In this 21 day digestibility study 768 male BUT 6 turkey poults were assigned to 8 treatments (6 replications/treatment): a negative control diet based on corn/soy, meeting the nutritional requirements of turkey poults except in phosphorus (0.26% ret P) and calcium (0.8%), 4 graded levels of phytase over the negative control (345, 690, 1035, 1380 FTU/kg), and 3 graded levels of supplemental MCP (0.6, 1.2, 1.8 g P/kg). Significance was determined using ANOVA and means separation for all parameters was achieved using Tukey's HSD. Bodyweight gain was maximised at the 1035 FTU/kg dose, with all levels of phytase supplementations significantly increasing BWG compared to the negative control (P < 0.05). Non-linear regression was conducted on ileal phosphorus digestibility, and optimum phytase dose was determined using the as the point where the incremental value of P release was equal to the incremental phytase cost, assuming the value of incremental P from phytase was equal to the value of the same amount of digestible P from an inorganic source. The optimum dose of phytase under typical 2014 US market price conditions was calculated to be 996 FTU/kg. At 996 FTU/kg, 100% of the potential value of inorganic P replacement was captured, compared to 70% of the value at 500 FTU/kg. Under different phytase and inorganic P price conditions, the optimum dose varied between 762 FTU/kg and 1231 FTU/kg. In conclusion, this study highlights a method that provides a rational justification for use of targeted phytase doses greater than 500 FTU/kg. © 2016.
Muller K.,University of Kiel |
Dickhoefer U.,University of Kiel |
Dickhoefer U.,University of Hohenheim |
Lin L.,University of Kiel |
And 12 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2014
The grassland steppe of Inner Mongolia is traditionally used for sheep grazing. However, overgrazing reduced vegetation cover in winter, thereby increasing soil erosion and consequently, degradation of the steppe vegetation. Grazing intensity (GI) is still the most important factor in pasture management. Hence, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of GI on grassland and sheep performance. A grazing experiment was conducted from July until September in 2005, 2006 and 2007 in which six different GI ranging from very light (GI 1), light (GI 2), light-moderate (GI 3), moderate (GI 4) and heavy (GI 5) to very heavy (GI 6) were tested. Each GI treatment comprised two adjacent plots that were alternately used for grazing or hay-making each year. Variables measured included herbage mass (HM) and chemical composition, digestibility of ingested organic matter (dOM), organic matter intake (OMI) and live weight gain (LWG) of sheep. The HM decreased significantly with increasing GI from 1·01 t (GI 1) to 0·45 t dry matter (DM)/ha (GI 6). There were only minor effects of GI on chemical composition and digestibility of standing herbage. Moreover, dOM, OMI and hence, digestible OMI did not differ between GI. Across all study years, LWG of sheep was not influenced by GI so that LWG per hectare increased with increasing GI, reaching a maximum of 730 g/d at GI 6 compared with 181 g/d at GI 1. However, a strong decrease in LWG per sheep with increasing stocking rate was found in 2005 when annual rainfall was less than half of the long-term average, resulting in a similar LWG per hectare across the range of tested stocking rates. The results therefore show that intensive grazing does not reduce growth of individual animals in most years, but increases LWG per unit of land area and thus, income of farmers. The alternating use of pastures for grazing or hay-making might have mitigated the negative effects of heavy grazing on herbage and animal performance. Nevertheless, high GI may negatively affect grassland productivity in the long term and the lack of HM on offer on heavy grazed pastures in dry years will require supplement feeding at the end of the vegetation period or the untimely sale of animals. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.
Lensing M.,Schothorst Feed Research B.V |
van der Klis J.D.,Schothorst Feed Research B.V |
Yoon I.,Diamond V Mills Inc |
Moore D.T.,Diamond V Mills Inc
Poultry Science | Year: 2012
A 37-d laying hen experiment was performed to determine the effect of Diamond V XPCLS (XPCLS, Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, IA) during a subclinical Eimeria maxima infection on intestinal health and productivity. Two hundred and sixteen 18-wk-old Brown Nick laying hens were allocated to 24 litter pens based on a weight class system (9 hens/ pen). The trial was carried out as a 2 × 2 factorial design with XPCLS and E. maxima challenge as main factors. Birds were fed a corn/wheat-based mash prelayer diet from wk 18 to 20 (10.9 MJ/kg of AME and 13.7% CP) and a standard phase I layer diet from wk 20 to 24 (11.7 MJ/kg of AME and 15.3% CP) that were supplemented with XPCLS at the rate of 0 or 0.75 g/kg. Hens were orally inoculated on d 23 (22 wk of age) with either 1 mL of saline (not infected) or 10,000 sporulated E. maxima oocysts/bird in 1 mL of saline (infected). Effects of XPC LS on intestinal health were determined by E. maxima lesion scoring. Results of E. maxima lesions were analyzed by Fisher exact, whereas severity of lesions and production parameters were analyzed by ANOVA. Supplementation of XPC LS significantly reduced severity of E. maxima lesions (P < 0.05) from 1.1 to 0.8 in challenged hens. An overall significant effect of XPC LS supplementation was demonstrated on d 34 by decreasing the severity of lesions from 0.3 to 0.1. The E. maxima challenge decreased (P < 0.05) production performance between 7 and 14 d postchallenge by lowering egg weight from 50 to 47 g/egg and laying rate from 84 to 70% and increasing feed per dozen eggs (P < 0.01) from 1.60 to 2.06 kg. Results indicate that Diamond V XPCLS supplementation reduced intestinal damage caused by an E. maxima infection in laying hens. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Van Der Klis J.D.,Schothorst Feed Research BV |
Kwakernaak C.,Schothorst Feed Research BV
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2014
In vitro techniques to predict the feeding value of feedstuffs should be quick, accurate, and cheap. A 2-step in vitro assay to simulate gastric and intestinal digestion was shown to predict AME value for roosters fairly accurately in cereals, cereal by-products, and oil. In general, in vitro techniques are optimized to estimate the maximum nutrient digestibility, using adult roosters for calibration. Prediction of absolute feeding values of feedstuffs by in vitro assays can be highly erroneous, and techniques describing the rate of degradation (dynamics of digestion) seem more promising than such end-point titrations. Moreover, the value of adult roosters as models for meat- or egg-producing birds is questionable. Although, dynamic in vitro assays and near infrared reflectance look to be promising tools, large data sets are required to improve the validity of these in vitro predictions. Such assays will certainly be helpful to correct tabulated feeding values when deviant feedstuff batches are being used. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.
PubMed | Schothorst Feed Research B.V.
Type: Controlled Clinical Trial | Journal: Poultry science | Year: 2012
A 37-d laying hen experiment was performed to determine the effect of Diamond V XPC(LS) (XPC(LS), Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, IA) during a subclinical Eimeria maxima infection on intestinal health and productivity. Two hundred and sixteen 18-wk-old Brown Nick laying hens were allocated to 24 litter pens based on a weight class system (9 hens/pen). The trial was carried out as a 2 2 factorial design with XPC(LS) and E. maxima challenge as main factors. Birds were fed a corn/wheat-based mash prelayer diet from wk 18 to 20 (10.9 MJ/kg of AME and 13.7% CP) and a standard phase I layer diet from wk 20 to 24 (11.7 MJ/kg of AME and 15.3% CP) that were supplemented with XPC(LS) at the rate of 0 or 0.75 g/kg. Hens were orally inoculated on d 23 (22 wk of age) with either 1 mL of saline (not infected) or 10,000 sporulated E. maxima oocysts/bird in 1 mL of saline (infected). Effects of XPC(LS) on intestinal health were determined by E. maxima lesion scoring. Results of E. maxima lesions were analyzed by Fisher exact, whereas severity of lesions and production parameters were analyzed by ANOVA. Supplementation of XPC(LS) significantly reduced severity of E. maxima lesions (P < 0.05) from 1.1 to 0.8 in challenged hens. An overall significant effect of XPC(LS) supplementation was demonstrated on d 34 by decreasing the severity of lesions from 0.3 to 0.1. The E. maxima challenge decreased (P < 0.05) production performance between 7 and 14 d postchallenge by lowering egg weight from 50 to 47 g/egg and laying rate from 84 to 70% and increasing feed per dozen eggs (P < 0.01) from 1.60 to 2.06 kg. Results indicate that Diamond V XPC(LS) supplementation reduced intestinal damage caused by an E. maxima infection in laying hens.