School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi

www.spa.ac.in/
Lal Bahadur Nagar, India

School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi is a premier higher education institute located in New Delhi, India specializing in education and research in the field of Planning and Architecture.It is the top ranked college in India for architecture and also the seventh best in Asia. It forms a part of the league along with the other two SPAs in India: the School of Planning and Architecture, Bhopal and the School of Planning and Architecture, Vijayawada.It is a National Resource Institute of India. Wikipedia.

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Kalaiselvi R.,School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi | Ramachandraiah A.,SRM University
Applied Acoustics | Year: 2016

In developing countries like India, the nature of the composition of traffic is heterogeneous. A heterogeneous traffic flow consists of vehicles that have different sizes, speeds, vehicle spacing and operating characteristics. As a result of the widely varying speeds, vehicular dimensions, lack of lane disciplines, honking becomes inevitable. In addition, it changes the urban soundscape of developing countries. In heterogeneous traffic conditions, horn events increase noise level (Lden) by 0.5-13 dB(A) as compared to homogenous traffic conditions. Therefore, the traffic prediction models that are used for homogenous traffic conditions are not applicable in heterogeneous traffic conditions. To increase the accuracy of noise prediction models, in depth understanding of heterogeneous traffic noise is required. Understanding the real traffic noise characteristics requires quantification of some of the basic traffic flow characteristics such as speed, flow, Level Of Service (LOS) and density. In a given roadway, the noise level changes with density and LOS on the road. In this paper, a new factor for horn correction is introduced with respect of Level Of Service (LOS). The horn correction values can be incorporated in traffic noise models such as CRTN, FHWA, and RLS 90, while evaluating heterogeneous traffic conditions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Nearly two million residential building are built annually in India apart from the offices, commercial and industrial buildings with demand and supply which is increasing year by year. It is essential to conserve the conventional energy by developing energy efficient buildings. Environmental quality and conservation of fossil fuels may become important in the context of limiting of GHGs emission and also reducing cost of materials. The most important stages from point of view of energy intensity: (a) Raw material acquisition; (b) Preparation & Manufacturing ;(c) Transportation But this paper broadly considered to analyze the first two parts as the third part of transportation energy vary from location to location, however it has been emphasized in the literature that 1 MJ/ tonne /km (diesel) for transporting materials can be integrated for location specific analysis. Besides, Energy estimates given in the literature for various materials such as the Cement 5.85MJ/kg, lime 5.62MJ/kg, LP 2.33MJ/kg (lime 30%, Pozzolana 60% and 10%calcined gypsum), steel 42MJ/kg, Al 236.8MJ/kg, Glass 25.8Mj/kg, Burnt clay brick 4.25MJ, Hollow block 12.3- 15MJ, etc have been considered for energy appraisal. It is focused on some issues pertaining to Embodied Energy savings by identifying a few appropriate options for important building components and a comparison of energy in different types of roof and terracing has been made. Energy in different options of alternative systems have been discussed and compared with the energy consumed in conventional specifications to appreciate the consumption of energy in various materials for selection of appropriate materials with reference to energy savings and sustainable development. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Kapshe M.,School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi | Kuriakose P.N.,School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi | Srivastava G.,School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi | Surjan A.,Kyoto University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

Rapid growth of urban population in India has led to equally fast increase in the consumption of water and consequently to generation of wastewater. Presently, about 30% of the wastewater generated from major cities of India is being treated. Untreated wastewater leads to various environmental problems including pollution of air, water and land resources. This paper especially addresses the issue of methane emission from wastewater, which is a major contributor to climate change. The main aim of the paper is to document and analyse a climate change mitigation action so as to identify and disseminate innovative urban practices that can be replicated at other places. The paper presents a case study of methane recovery and power generation from Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) in Surat city of Gujarat in India. Direct benefits of projects namely, methane extraction and electricity generation are quantified based on the data on total methane production and electricity generation from the STPs. Before implementation of the project, annual baseline Carbon Dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions from each STP were between 19,000 and 27,000 tonnes. After implementation of the project, the annual emissions are in the range of 3000-5000 tonnes from each plant. Thus, a total of 80,000 tonnes of CO2e emission reduction per year is estimated from the four STPs in Surat. These plants are also generating 1.5 to 2.5 million kWh electricity for captive use every year. Taking a co-benefit approach, in addition to the reduction of greenhouse gas emission, associated multiple benefits of the project are also quantified. Co-benefits such as production of useful bi-products and water pollution reduction were found to be significant. Many other social benefits have also been documented; however, these could not be quantified due to non-availability of suitable data. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sankat S.,School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi | Khare R.,School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2016

The aim of the research is to study the situations of Indian elderly and to generate a framework to create inclusive living environment for the Indian elderly. Through preliminary diagnostic surveys the need of creation of inclusive living environments has been established. An extensive literature review is done to understand ageing. Then field surveys are performed to identify the challenges that the elderly face. The survey is done for the upcoming typologies which are identified with market survey and scientific layering of the data. Then 48 elderly in the age group of 60–85 years representing independent elderly, frail elderly, and dependent elderly are studied using environment-behavior research tools. The collected data is analyzed in layers to identify 20 environmental issues. Based on these identified issues, analysis and synthesis is done to identify the possibilities of interventions at architecture design level. It has been established through testing and validation that the gap can be filled by guidelines. Thus, following a methodology, the guidelines to create “Living Environments for the Indian Elderly” are prepared. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.


Misra M.,School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi
International Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2016

Vernacular architecture is a response to the facts of local geography and climate. The house form, materials and techniques of construction used in vernacular architecture are an effective response through appropriate or sustainable technology. Fascination with Western modernity has excluded this reality from architecture and planning in India. Laurie Baker’s faithful continuation of his responsibility to build for India according to Gandhi’s advice needs to be understood as a practical and economic solution to India’s housing problem. This paper looks at the contribution of Laurie Baker to the continuation of vernacular architecture. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


Mukherjee D.,School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi | Rajvanshi A.,Wildlife Institute of India
Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management | Year: 2016

Lack of comprehensive land use planning in India has posed significant challenges in achieving more optimal utilisation of land resources. This has also limited the opportunities for developing land use plans that adequately reflect the rationale and objectives of planning. This calls for developing a comprehensive and holistic approach to review the compatibility of actions associated with development plans involving multiple sectors with the ground realities. This paper is an attempt to apply strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a promising tool to identify environmental risks and deficiencies in the land use planning process in India. The paper draws on the experience of applying SEA to Gurgaon-Manesar Development Plan for 2031 and elaborates on the merits and usefulness of adopting SEA in land use planning in the Indian context. © 2016 World Scientific Publishing Europe Ltd.


Mahavir,School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science | Year: 2014

All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Prabhu T.D.,School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi | Sarkar P.K.,School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2016

Jay walkers are exposed to higher risk while crossing the road due to lack of appropriate pedestrian warrants and standards. The pedestrian facilities and standards adopted in developed countries are not feasible in developing nation like India. Mid-block pedestrian crossing with different land uses as criteria was selected as case study inside Delhi Urban area. The PTV Vissim and PTV Viswalk, widely used micro simulation software used for modelling heterogeneous, non-lane behavior traffic and pedestrian-vehicular interaction. The inbuilt calibration parameters have been developed considering lane based and homogeneous traffic with less complex characteristics. Hence the calibration parameter for Indian traffic and pedestrian behavior was identified and modified with various combinations for the best representation in the simulation model. As a proposal suitable warrants are developed and simulated for the safe pedestrian movement. © 2016 The Authors.


Puntambekar K.,School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi
WIT Transactions on the Built Environment | Year: 2011

Travel behaviour in any city is guided by its land use distribution and transport network and planning. The response of people to the system is travel behaviour. The paper discusses the issues in understanding the travel behaviour of people. The behavioral change in the use of the type of transport is a slow process and can be initiated by providing the infrastructure such that the monetary and temporal benefits are accountable by the user. The inclination towards the use of public transport, walking or other non-motorised transport can be created by integrated land use and transport planning. The two different systems need to work in integration for sustainable development of the urban area. The purpose of the study is to find out how the travel behaviour studies will facilitate the integration of land use and transport planning. With an example the paper will explain how much the travel behaviour depends upon the land use distribution and available transport network. The conclusion of the study states that there is a substantial amount of dependence of the travel behaviour on land use and transport planning. It also puts forward the issues to be addressed to facilitate the integration of land use and transport planning for reduction of use of motorized transport and to promote the use of public transport, walking or other non-motorised transport. © 2011 WIT Press.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: SSH-2009-2.1.2. | Award Amount: 3.15M | Year: 2010

In this programme we want to examine how governments and citizens in cities with differing patterns of urban economic growth make use of participatory(or integrated) spatial knowledge management to direct urban governance towards more sustainable development (SD). Participatory spatial knowledge management is the main concept we use to study this issue, as it reflects a strategic resource, which all stakeholders can contribute to urban governance processes towards SD. It includes both expert knowledge and several forms of non-expert knowledge, such as knowledge from (working) experience (tacit), embedded sectoral knowledge, and social (or community-based) knowledge at the neighbourhood and city-wide level. Participatory processes of urban planning and management are strategic in eliciting these forms of spatially disaggregated (of specific) knowledge, which are usually not acknowledged in top-down, expert-driven models of urban governance and planning. Utilizing participatory spatial knowledge can make urban governance and planning more effective and gain wider acceptance, by incorporating both expert and local community knowledge. Although participatory spatial knowledge management is increasingly used in urban planning processes, its success depends on external political and economic conditions. A legal framework providing for fiscal decentralisation and funding, for instance, is a strategic support. The influence of various external conditions has not yet been analysed much locally, and certainly not comparatively across different socio-political contexts, although it is a strategic question, given the inherent trade-offs and potential political conflicts in combining environmental, social and economic goals (within SD). Therefore, our programme focuses on nine cities with contrasting economic and political conditions, with the main scientific objective of developing a model on participatory spatial knowledge management to direct urban governance to SD.

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