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News Article | May 23, 2017

During his commencement speech at Dickinson College on May 21, retired four-star Admiral James Stavridis discussed why he’s sometimes troubled by the common statement to military members, “thank you for your service,” and why often-maligned groups, like the news media, are deserving of the expression of gratitude as well. “My problem is that by making that catch phrase, ‘Thank you for your service,’ somehow the province of the military alone, we miss a crucial point,” Stavridis, former supreme allied commander of NATO, explained. “Which is simply that there are so many ways to serve this nation, and indeed to serve the world beyond what our military does.” He called out other groups and professions, including journalists, whom he said are doing “deeply dangerous work on the front lines of crisis around the world, risking their lives to tell the story.” He added that foreign correspondents, particularly, are “brave and steady under fire, like the best of our military, yet they are armed only with a notepad, a recorder and a smart phone.” The admiral pointed out how first responders, Peace Corps members, teachers, diplomats, health-care professionals, entrepreneurs, social workers and even politicians serve the country. “Politics has become blood sport in America,” Stavridis said, “Any elected representative… is subject to endless scrutiny, bottomless skepticism and often deep personal unpopularity.” Stavridis advised the class of 2017 to make service a priority. “In the gorgeous trajectories of your lives, find time to serve,” he said. “Because one day I want to be able to say to you—the class of 2017—'thank you for your service.'” Stavridis was the longest-serving combatant commander in recent U.S. history. From 2009-2013, he led the NATO alliance in global operations as supreme allied commander with responsibility for Afghanistan, Libya, Syria, the Balkans, cybersecurity and piracy off the coast of Africa. His memoir of the NATO years, “The Accidental Admiral,” was released in 2014, and his leadership book, “The Leader’s Bookshelf,” appeared in March of 2016. He is married to Laura Hall Stavridis, Dickinson class of 1981, and the father of two daughters. From 2006-2009, Stavridis led the U.S. Southern Command in Miami, with responsibility for all military operations in Latin America. He earlier served as senior military assistant to the secretary of the Navy and the secretary of defense and—immediately after the 9/11 attacks—led “Deep Blue,” the Navy’s premier operational think tank for innovation. Earlier in his military career, Stavridis commanded the top ship in the Atlantic Fleet, winning the Battenberg Cup for operational excellence, as well as a squadron of destroyers and a carrier strike group, all in combat. He is a recipient of the Navy League John Paul Jones Award for Inspirational Leadership and holds more than 50 medals, including 28 from foreign nations. After 37 years of service, Stavridis retired from the Navy in 2013 and became the 12th dean of The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University, a position he holds currently. An Annapolis graduate, he holds a Ph.D. in international relations from the Fletcher School, where he won the Gullion Prize as top student. Stavridis also chairs the board of the U.S. Naval Institute, the professional association of the nation’s sea services: Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard and Merchant Marine. He is a monthly columnist for TIME magazine and chief international security and diplomacy analyst for NBC news and MSNBC. About Dickinson: Dickinson is a nationally recognized liberal arts college chartered in 1783 in Carlisle, Pa. The highly selective college is home to 2,400 students from across the nation and around the world. Defining characteristics of a Dickinson education include a focus on global education—at home and abroad—and study of the environment and sustainability.

News Article | May 9, 2017

Retired U.S. Army Brigadier General and former State Department official Kim Field has joined Creative Associates International as Director of the organization's Countering Violent Extremism Practice Area. Field will oversee projects aimed at promoting peace and tolerance and minimizing the factors that can lead to violent extremism. She will also lend her expertise to other Practice Areas as they incorporate into their projects strategies that prevent and counter violent extremism. She brings more than 30 years of experience in the U.S. military and the State Department to Creative's expanding efforts to respond to radicalization and violent extremism around the world. After stints supporting civilian agencies in conflict-affected areas including Somalia, Afghanistan, the Balkans, Haiti, Iraq and Syria, Field says she wanted to work more directly with non-military interventions. “Many years of work in the military led me to conclude that we will not shoot our way out of the global phenomenon that is violent extremism,” she said. “Creative really appeals to me. The company’s long-standing work in conflict zones, especially at the local level, its willingness to embrace innovation and its agile, smart partnerships are things I was looking for after I left government.” A 1987 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point and Tufts University's Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Field most recently served as a Deputy Assistant Secretary in the State Department’s Bureau of Conflict and Stabilization Operations. She was previously Deputy Director for Middle East in the political-military affairs office on the Joint Staff, and as the Deputy Director for Army Strategy helped craft the Army’s way forward during a significant period of transition. "We are very privileged to have Kim – with her extensive military and interagency experience – join Creative. She will not only contribute insightful thought leadership for countering violent extremism but also bring valuable senior management skills to continue growing our successful CVE Practice Area," says Tom Wheelock, Senior Vice President and Senior Director of Creative's Communities in Transition Division. Field’s expertise, experience and commitment are wonderful resources for the entire Creative team, he says. For 40 years Creative has addressed the root causes of extremism through development, using local insight to build solutions by promoting counter-narratives, engaging marginalized communities and applying good governance practices. Creative Associates International works with underserved communities by sharing expertise and experience and building local capacity in education, economic growth, governance and transitions from conflict to peace. Based in Washington, D.C., Creative has active projects in more than 27 countries. Since 1977, it has worked in nearly 90 countries and on almost every continent. Recognized for its ability to work rapidly, flexibly and effectively in conflict-affected environments, Creative is committed to generating long-term sustainable solutions to complex development problems. Started by four enterprising women with diverse backgrounds, Creative has grown to become one of the leaders among the U.S. private sector implementers of global development projects. Creative is minority-owned and operated.

Bhide A.,School of Law and Diplomacy
Critical Review | Year: 2017

Non-medical innovation has become progressively more open, harnessing the enterprise and creativity of a variety of players (including venturesome consumers) and relying on diverse structured and unstructured methods to generate and select advances. Medical innovation, however, remains more closed and regimented because of age-old traditions, reinforced by modern funding and regulatory practices that require the costly ex-ante demonstration of efficacy. These practices, which seek to replicate those of the natural sciences, militate against the pluralistic creation and use of medical innovations and suppress ad-hoc, accretive—and potentially life-saving—advances. © 2017 Critical Review Foundation.

Knudsen J.S.,School of Law and Diplomacy
Global Policy | Year: 2017

This article examines corporate social responsibility (CSR) pertaining to labor standards in apparel and tax transparency in extractives and explores how domestic regulatory traditions shape CSR in large international US and UK firms. Reflecting their more collaborative business-government traditions, British firms are more willing to join international CSR multi-stakeholder initiatives with business-critical actors such as unions and civil society actors. The US has a more top-down regulatory approach, which promotes hard law international CSR or encourages business-driven voluntary CSR initiatives. This article makes three contributions. First, it argues that while corporations are the key actors in international CSR, their behavior reflects their respective national business systems. Second, focusing on a range of international CSR initiatives, this article finds that UK firms are more interested in adopting international (multi-stakeholder) CSR initiatives than US firms. Finally, the article shows that the US and the UK governments play a key role in driving an international CSR agenda, and in doing this it highlights government agency more so than other research has. © 2017 University of Durham and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Shafiqul Islam, Sc.D., of Tufts University School of Engineering, has been awarded the 7th Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz International Prize for Water (PSIPW) Creativity Award, one of most prestigious international awards focusing on water-related scientific innovation. Islam was recognized for his work in developing and testing a model using chlorophyll information from satellite data to predict cholera outbreaks at least three to six months in advance. Islam, along with his colleague, Rita Colwell, Ph.D., of the University of Maryland at College Park, are receiving the award at a ceremony Nov. 2 at the United Nations Headquarters in New York. The event is being hosted by the U. N. Friends of Water and presided over by the U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon and PSIPW Chairman Prince Khaled Bin Sultan Bin Abdulaziz. This collaborative initiative between Tufts University and the University of Maryland involved several former students, university faculty and researchers from these two institutions. It also involved international partners, integrated and advanced scholarship, field experience in ecology and microbiology of cholera; hydrology and remote sensing; limnology and plankton taxonomy; and public health, epidemiology and biostatistics, and modeling. Doctoral research by two recent Tufts graduates - Dr. Ali Akanda of the University of Rhode Island and Dr. Antarpreet Jutla of West Virginia University - led to the discovery that the macro-environmental factors that drive cholera can be tracked using remote sensing data and other forecasting methods, opening up the possibility of an early warning system for cholera. Cholera is an acute diarrheal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The World Health Organization estimates it sickens 1.3 million to 4 million people each year and causes 21,000 to 143,000 deaths worldwide. "This interdisciplinary and highly productive team has demonstrated consistent and significant accomplishments, and has made a considerable effort towards cholera prediction for effective intervention and mitigation," said Kurt Pennell, Ph.D., PE, BCEE, professor and chair of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Tufts. "We are grateful that PSIPW has not only recognized their achievements but also provided prominence to this timely and humane work." Colwell is an internationally acclaimed oceanographer and microbiologist who has spent the bulk of her career studying the V. cholerae bacterium. Colwell and her team were the first to identify linkages between phytoplankton, zooplankton and cholera. Islam applied Colwell's findings and related chlorophyll and phytoplankton information obtained from NASA satellites to develop cholera prediction models. Currently, the team is testing this satellite-based model - where hydrology and microbiology meet epidemiology and engineering - with ground-based observations for different regions of the world. "The Cholera Outbreak Prediction system from Satellite has the capabilities and functionalities to be useful for many regions of the world where minimal or no resources are available for ground measurements. My hope is that our findings will enable medical professionals to anticipate and prevent cholera outbreaks," said Islam. "I'm honored and humbled to receive this recognition and hope it will call global attention for action and operationalize this predictive model to save lives in cholera-endemic and resource-limited regions of the world." In addition to serving as a civil and environmental engineering professor at the School of Engineering, Islam is the director of the Water Diplomacy program and a professor of water diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts. He was the first Bernard M. Gordon Senior Faculty Fellow in Engineering at Tufts. His research group Water Diplomacy and WE REASoN integrates "theory and practice" and "think and do" to create actionable water knowledge. Islam is the recipient of numerous awards and accolades, and has authored more than 100 articles in journals and other publications. PSIPW is a leading, global scientific award focusing on cutting-edge innovation in water research. It gives recognition to scientists, researchers and inventors around the world for pioneering work that addresses the problem of water scarcity in creative and effective ways. Tufts University, located on campuses in Boston, Medford/Somerville and Grafton, Massachusetts, and in Talloires, France, is recognized among the premier research universities in the United States. Tufts enjoys a global reputation for academic excellence and for the preparation of students as leaders in a wide range of professions. A growing number of innovative teaching and research initiatives span all Tufts campuses, and collaboration among the faculty and students in the undergraduate, graduate and professional programs across the university's schools is widely encouraged.

European nations, including the UK, are making a grave accounting error that will result in the emissions of more planet-warming greenhouse gases, according to a new report from an independent London think tank. By counting the burning of wood pellets from felled forests in the U.S., Canada and Russia as a "renewable" or "sustainable" form of energy, nations in the European Union are masking their full impact on the environment, the report warns. The study, from Chatham House, comes as European officials debate policies that favor particular energy sources, including biomass energy such as wood pellets, as a way to cut planet-warming carbon dioxide. SEE ALSO: Something is very, very wrong with the Arctic climate The report warns that contrary to what many policy makers have been saying, bioenergy involves about as much carbon emissions as coal. In fact, if wood is burned to make steam for electricity, this practice may be 50 percent more carbon intensive than coal per unit of electricity produced. Bioenergy policy may seem like an issue buried in the weeds (so to speak) of climate policy, but scientists say the future severity of global warming is at stake in determining the European Union's (EU) policies toward biomass burning. If the wrong policies remain in place, the EU may inadvertently torpedo the globe's chances to live up to the commitments made under the Paris Climate Agreement. “The Paris temperature goal is in peril because of the way we’re dealing with bioenergy,” William Moomaw, a professor at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University, said in an interview. The EU is the world’s biggest user of biomass for electricity generation, with its use growing quickly. With the Trump administration wavering on its support for the climate pact, the policies adopted by other nations and groups of countries have taken on an increased importance. According to the report, emissions from the burning of wood pellets are never truly accounted for, either at the point of combustion or when trees are cut down to make the pellets. To put that another way, European nations are currently allowed to burn wood pellets from trees that have been chopped down in the Southeast U.S., and no one — neither the U.S. nor the European countries — ever marks down the emissions on their carbon checking account. The study found that despite being responsible for several million tons of carbon emissions in 2016, the UK did not log any emissions from burning wood pellets because of accounting loopholes. The report recommends that emissions be tallied from the point when forests are cut all the way through combustion. This is critical, since trees are a huge absorber of atmospheric carbon, known to climate policy specialists and scientists as a carbon "sink." European governments are working to eliminate subsidies for fossil fuels, but they have been maintaining financial support for bioenergy, encouraging the clear cutting of swaths of forests in the southeastern U.S. to produce wood pellets that are shipped to power plants across the Atlantic Ocean. In other words, loggers are chopping down huge swaths of forests in the Southeast to produce wood pellets that are shipped to Europe, where they’re burned in power plants. The Chatham House report found that burning wood for energy is far less efficient compared to using solar panels to do the same thing.  "Burning wood converts solar energy into electricity with an efficiency of only one-quarter of one percent compared to 20 percent for solar panels that release no emissions during operations," Moomaw said. The bioenergy issue is causing us to skirt along a “knife’s edge” when it comes to our future, Moomaw said.  “If we do it the other way and actually protect and restore degraded forests and other degraded terrestrial lands we actually can pull far more out of the atmosphere than people realize,” he added, noting that’s “a system of negative emissions that’s been working for 300 million years. We know it works.” Regarding the accounting rules that are incentivizing bioenergy without fully accounting for the carbon emissions, Moomaw said: “Somebody has to stand up and tell the kids there is no Santa Claus.” BONUS: These bladeless wind generators are economic and bird friendly

The "resource curse" has been analyzed extensively in the context of non-renewable resources such as oil and gas. More recently commentators have expressed concerns that also renewable electricity exports can have adverse economic impacts on exporting countries. My paper analyzes to what extent the resource curse applies in the case of large-scale renewable electricity exports. I develop a "comprehensive model" that integrates previous works and provides a consolidated view of how non-renewable resource abundance impacts economic growth. Deploying this model I analyze through case studies on Laos, Mongolia, and the MENA region to what extent exporters of renewable electricity run into the danger of the resource curse. I find that renewable electricity exports avoid some disadvantages of non-renewable resource exports including (i) shocks after resource depletion; (ii) macroeconomic fluctuations; and (iii) competition for a fixed amount of resources. Nevertheless, renewable electricity exports bear some of the same risks as conventional resource exports including (i) crowding-out of the manufacturing sector; (ii) incentives for corruption; and (iii) reduced government accountability. I conclude with recommendations for managing such risks. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Singh K.,School of Law and Diplomacy
Energy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2016

India is a country where 300 million people still live without access to formal electricity, and where hundreds of millions more live with irregular supply through the existing grid network. This paper examines business innovation in the diffusion of off-grid solar technologies in India. An in-country survey of off-grid solar energy providers from across the nation was conducted and coupled with extensive field interviews. Findings reveal that most off-grid solar energy enterprises are not operating in the government subsidy market and that more than half are not offering any form of financing to their customers when selling their products. Also, more than half of the enterprises are selling their products in areas where the electric grid is present. Analysis of data collected suggests that an increase in product categories (lanterns, solar home lighting systems (SHS), micro-grids, etc.) negatively affects unit scaling for a firm but increases the likelihood that the firm is offering financing for its products. In areas without the electricity grid, the number of off-grid solar technology options decreases because the firms operating in the area have fewer categories of technology options. This study finds that off-grid solar technology enterprises that focus on fewer technology categories are more likely to achieve unit scaling. This finding must be balanced with the fact that the extent of the grid has not inhibited the market for off-grid solar technologies, but rather affects the number of categories of technologies that can be offered in those regions. Development programs should thus recognize that those who need electricity access the most may be the ones with the most limited technology options. © 2015 International Energy Initiative.

Petrova M.A.,School of Law and Diplomacy
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change | Year: 2013

The acronym NIMBY, known to stand for 'Not-In-My-Back-Yard', generally describes resistance to siting specific projects close to one's area of residence while exhibiting acceptance of similar projects elsewhere. As wind energy continues to be recognized as a successful technology for meeting renewable energy targets and decreasing carbon dioxide emissions, the siting of wind turbines is a growing challenge that policy makers, facility planners, and wind developers face. The most often cited motivations for public support and opposition are reviewed here with a focus on wind energy developments in the United States. The purpose is to present the existing state of research on community responses to wind energy and to answer the following questions: What motivates support and opposition to facility siting, and in particular to wind energy facilities? Does the literature provide substantial evidence that NIMBYism is the determining motivation for opposition in the United States and, by extension, does the term's widespread use help to explain opposition? What mechanisms have been proposed for 'overcoming' NIMBYism, if it is present? This paper, following the recommendations of other social scientists, provides a collective call for a significant course shift: rather than proposing strategies to 'overcome' opposition, research should focus on proposing how to make siting successful. Drawing on a review of the relevant literature, the 'ENUF' framework-which stands for 'Engage, Never use NIMBY, Understand, and Facilitate'-is introduced as a step in that direction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Despite the prevailing national support for renewable energy development, the installation of wind energy turbines at the local level is often met with resistance. Opposition is commonly attributed to NIMBYism (Not-In-My-Back-Yard), which implies selfishness, ignorance, and irrationality on behalf of residents. This article examines the factors that lead to community support and opposition. Based on an in-depth literature review and surveys conducted in three Massachusetts towns, the author discards NIMBY as a valid explanation and proposes a novel framework (VESPA) for organizing community concerns into four categories-visual/landscape, environmental, socioeconomic, and procedural. By comprehensively assessing local concerns, VESPA seeks to help policy makers approach communities more effectively and thereby achieve wider acceptance of wind installations. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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