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Benchaar C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Romero-Perez G.A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Chouinard P.Y.,Laval University | Hassanat F.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, forage (i.e., timothy hay) in sacco ruminal degradation, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, milk production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows was investigated. Four ruminally cannulated, primiparous lactating cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (28-d periods). They were fed a total mixed ration (50:50 forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio [dry matter (DM) basis] without supplementation (control, CTL), or supplemented (wt/wt; DM basis) with LO at 2, 3, or 4%. Supplementation with LO had no effect on DM intake (19. kg/d) and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy). Ruminal pH, ammonia, and total volatile FA concentrations were not changed by LO supplementation to diets. Extent of changes in volatile FA pattern and effective ruminal degradability of DM of timothy hay were minor. Neither the total numbers nor the genera distribution of protozoa was changed by the addition of increasing amounts of LO to the diet. Milk yield increased linearly (26.1, 27.3, 27.4, and 28.4. kg/d for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO added to the diet increased. Milk fat content was not affected by LO supplementation, whereas milk protein content decreased linearly with increasing amounts of LO in the diet. Milk fat proportions of several intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated FA (i.e., trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,. trans-11 18:2, trans-11,. cis-15 18:2, and cis-9,. trans-11,. cis-15 18:3) increased linearly with LO addition to the diet. The proportion of cis-9,. cis-12 18:2 decreased linearly (2.06, 1.99, 1.91, and 1.83% for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO in the diet increased. Milk fat content of cis-9,. cis-12,. cis-15 18:3 increased as the level of LO in the diet increased up to 3% but no further increase was observed when 4% of LO was fed (0.33, 0.79, 0.86, and 0.86% for CTL to LO4, respectively). A similar quadratic response to LO supplementation was also observed for cis-5,. cis-8,. cis-11,. cis-14,. cis-17 20:5 and cis-5,. cis-7,. cis-10,. cis-13,. cis-16 22:5. The results of the present study show that LO can be safely supplemented up to 4% in forage-based diets of dairy cows to enrich milk with potential health beneficial FA (i.e., n-3 FA) without causing any detrimental effects on rumen function, digestion, and milk production. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.2.3-04 | Award Amount: 4.45M | Year: 2013

Optilfel has as its ultimate goal to contribute to elders health by combating denutrition due to both physical capacities diminution and appetite loss. The concept of Optifel is to translate the knowledge on nutritional needs, food preferences and physical capacities into accurate specifications for food products and packaging. Food products (including packaging and food serving methods) will then be elaborated using both traditional and alternative technologies to meet these specifications and their acceptance tested by elderly. The population targeted by the project is elderly persons cooking at home or making use of meal-on-wheels services for whom the project will conceive food products adapted to their taste, habits, needs and constraints. The range of solutions envisaged span from taste and texture to nutritional quality, and microbial safety through packaging and delivery mode. Optifel will test the approach on fruit and vegetable products, which traditionally constitute a high part of elderly diet, offer great variety, and are amenable to texture manipulation. Optifel aims to - collect, refine and formalise user needs and expectations in terms of sensory and nutritional quality, texture, packagings cognitive and biomechanical ergonomics, and preparation convenience. - translate elders and caregivers needs and expectations into food products and packaging functional specifications to be delivered under the form of conceptual food models. - design and develop food processing and packaging to produce prototypes fulfilling the specifications. - assess the actual properties of the prototypes after food preparation and identify criticalpoints during final preparation and serving. - test the prototype products in meals-on-wheels and in nursing homes to evaluate their acceptance by elderly persons and care-givers.


PubMed | School of Agricultural Studies of Angers and Charles Sturt University
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2016

Copper and iron in wine can influence oxidative, reductive and colloidal stability. The current study utilises a solid phase extraction technique to fractionate these metals into hydrophobic, cationic and residual forms, with quantification by ICP-OES. The impact of aspects of wine production on the metal fractions was examined, along with the relationship between metal fractions and oxygen decay rates. Addition of copper and iron to juice, followed by fermentation, favoured an increase in all of their respective metal fractions in the wine, with the largest increase observed for the cationic form of iron. Bentonite fining of the protein-containing wines led to a significant reduction in the cationic fraction of copper and an increase in the cationic form of iron. Total copper correlated more closely with oxygen consumption in the wine compared to total iron, and the residual and cationic forms of copper provided the largest contribution to this impact.


Martineau R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Proulx J.G.,Ste Catherine de HatleyQC | Cortes C.,School of Agricultural Studies of Angers | Brito A.F.,University of New Hampshire | Duffield T.F.,University of Guelph
Veterinary Surgery | Year: 2015

Objective: To describe a 2-stage rumen cannulation technique for dairy cows. Study Design: Case series. Animals: 172 dairy cows from 2 research institutions. Methods: The 2-stage rumen cannulation technique first exteriorized a rumen segment within a wooden clamp, fixing the clamp to the skin with 6 mattress sutures. After 1 week, the necrotic rumen segment was removed, leaving a rumen fistula in which a 7.5cm cannula was inserted. This was replaced by a 10cm cannula a further 1 week later. The surgery took an average of 30minutes. At least 1 assistant is required for the technique. Results: The overall complication frequency was 7/172 (4%). One cow and 1 heifer aborted less than 10 days after surgery. Two late-pregnant heifers died from peritonitis after insertion of the 7.5cm cannula because of incomplete adhesion of the rumen to the abdominal wall. The exteriorized rumen segment slipped back in the abdomen in 3 cows but was successfully re-clamped prior to insertion of the 7.5cm cannula. Conclusion: A high success rate was achieved with this 2-stage cannulation technique. Postoperative complications were attributed to delayed adhesion of the rumen, perhaps because of stress-related factors (e.g., transport, mixing with other animals, transition period). © 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.


Rolle L.,University of Turin | Siret R.,School of Agricultural Studies of Angers | Segade S.R.S.,University of Turin | Maury C.,School of Agricultural Studies of Angers | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2012

Texture analysis is a well-established analytical technique in the food industry for evaluating the mechanical and physical characteristics of both raw ingredients and finished products. Instrumental mechanical properties of table grapes, acquired using universal testing machines equipped with specific probes, may be of interest in the viticulture and postharvest sectors to recognize the potential of each variety and help satisfy market requirements. The measured parameters are related to some sensory properties and, therefore, indirectly to consumer acceptability of the product. As texture analysis is a rapid and low-cost analytical technique, it can also be favorably applied in enology as a routine tool for monitoring winegrape quality. Among the different mechanical parameters measurable, berry skin thickness and hardness are indices that reflect anthocyanin extractability and dehydration kinetics with adequate reliability. This review collects the most recent research results from grape texture studies, emphasizes the potentiality and limits of this analytical technique when applied to grape studies, and highlights trends that require further understanding. © 2012 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved.


Battie-Laclau P.,University of Sao Paulo | Laclau J.-P.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Laclau J.-P.,São Paulo State University | Laclau J.-P.,University of Sao Paulo | And 10 more authors.
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2014

Although vast areas in tropical regions have weathered soils with low potassium (K) levels, little is known about the effects of K supply on the photosynthetic physiology of trees. This study assessed the effects of K and sodium (Na) supply on the diffusional and biochemical limitations to photosynthesis in Eucalyptus grandis leaves. A field experiment comparing treatments receiving K (+K) or Na (+Na) with a control treatment (C) was set up in a K-deficient soil. The net CO2 assimilation rates were twice as high in +K and 1.6 times higher in +Na than in the C as a result of lower stomatal and mesophyll resistance to CO2 diffusion and higher photosynthetic capacity. The starch content was higher and soluble sugar was lower in +K than in C and +Na, suggesting that K starvation disturbed carbon storage and transport. The specific leaf area, leaf thickness, parenchyma thickness, stomatal size and intercellular air spaces increased in +K and +Na compared to C. Nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations were also higher in +K and +Na than in C. These results suggest a strong relationship between the K and Na supply to E. grandis trees and the functional and structural limitations to CO2 assimilation rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Isengard H.-D.,University of Hohenheim | Merkh G.,University of Hohenheim | Schreib K.,University of Hohenheim | Labitzke I.,University of Hohenheim | Dubois C.,School of Agricultural Studies of Angers
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Indirect methods have often the advantage to be non-invasive and very rapid. They can sometimes even be applied in-line or at-line. The disadvantage is that they do not measure the target property of the product directly but either another property that depends on the target property or the response of the product to a physical influence. In all these cases it is necessary to know the relationship of the target property and the measured property or the response, respectively. This relationship is often very complex and needs to be established empirically for samples with known properties which have been measured with a reference method. In other words, a calibration must be established. The future predictions depend completely on the calibration. This means that the calibration must be as correct as ever possible. Inadequate calibration leads to erroneous results, although the user of the method may not be aware of this fact. This is shown at the example of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for water content determination. The Karl Fischer titration as a selective method and drying techniques as non-selective methods were used as reference methods. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Palin M.-F.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Cortes C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Cortes C.,School of Agricultural Studies of Angers | Benchaar C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

In the present study, the effect of flax hulls with or without flax oil bypassing the rumen on the expression of lipogenic genes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows was investigated. A total of eight dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. There were four periods of 21 d each and four treatments: control diet with no flax hulls (CONT); diet with 9.88% flax hulls in the DM (HULL); control diet with 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (COFO); diet with 9.88% flax hulls in the DM and 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (HUFO). A higher mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor, fatty acid (FA) synthase, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), PPARγ1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-α was observed in cows fed HULL than in those fed CONT, and HUFO had the opposite effect. Compared with CONT, COFO and HUFO lowered the mRNA abundance of SCD, which may explain the lower proportions of MUFA in milk fat with flax oil infusion. The mRNA abundance of LPL in mammary tissue and proportions of long-chain FA in milk fat were higher in cows fed COFO than in those fed CONT. The highest proportions of trans FA were observed when cows were fed HULL. The present study demonstrates that flax hulls with or without flax oil infusion in the abomasum can affect the expression of lipogenic genes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows, which may contribute to the improvement of milk FA profile. Copyright © The Authors 2013.


Cortes C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Cortes C.,School of Agricultural Studies of Angers | Palin M.-F.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Gagnon N.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of flax hulls and/or flax oil on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)) in plasma and the mammary gland and the relative mRNA abundance of antioxidant genes in the mammary gland of dairy cows. A total of eight dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. There were four treatments: control with no flax hulls (CONT), 9•88 % flax hulls in the DM (HULL), control with 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (COFO), 9•88 % flax hulls in the DM and 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (HUFO). Plasma GPX activity tended to decrease with flax oil supplementation. Cows fed HULL had higher levels of CAT, GPX1 and SOD1 mRNA in the mammary gland and lower mRNA abundance of GPX3, SOD2 and SOD3 compared with those fed CONT. Abundance of CAT, GPX1, GPX3, SOD2 and SOD3 mRNA was down-regulated in the mammary gland of cows fed HUFO compared to those fed CONT. The mRNA abundance of CAT, GPX1, GPX3 and SOD3 was lower in the mammary gland of cows fed COFO than in the mammary gland of cows fed CONT. The present study demonstrates that flax hulls contribute to increasing the abundance of some antioxidant genes, which can contribute to protecting against oxidative stress damage occurring in the mammary gland and other tissues of dairy cows. © 2011 The Authors.


Parpinello G.P.,University of Bologna | Plumejeau F.,School of Agricultural Studies of Angers | Maury C.,School of Agricultural Studies of Angers | Versari A.,University of Bologna
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

Background: The main objective of this study was to improve the structure of a Cabernet Sauvignon red wine in a short period of time by micro-oxygenation (MOX) at high rates (25 and 50 mL L -1 month -1), the effects of which were evaluated based on sensory characteristics and consumer preference. Sensory data were analysed by principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and ordinal logistic regression (OLR). Results: MOX led to significant differences in the colour, colour stability and phenolic compounds of wine. Sensory characteristics also changed through MOX treatment, and wine experts were able to discriminate between MOX-treated and untreated samples, with olfactory intensity, complexity, astringency and roundness being the main discriminating characteristics. Ordinal logistic regression enabled identification of the sensory characteristics that drove consumer preference. Conclusion: MOX at high rates improved the sensory characteristics of wine and may therefore be considered a valid technique for obtaining structured wines in a short period of time, i.e. within just a few months after the vintage. The results highlight the need for (i) careful selection of the MOX dosage rate and duration (the 25 mL L -1 month -1 dose for 6 days provided the best result) and (ii) continuous monitoring of the MOX treatment. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

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