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Martineau R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Proulx J.G.,Ste Catherine de HatleyQC | Cortes C.,School of Agricultural Studies of Angers | Brito A.F.,University of New Hampshire | Duffield T.F.,University of Guelph
Veterinary Surgery | Year: 2015

Objective: To describe a 2-stage rumen cannulation technique for dairy cows. Study Design: Case series. Animals: 172 dairy cows from 2 research institutions. Methods: The 2-stage rumen cannulation technique first exteriorized a rumen segment within a wooden clamp, fixing the clamp to the skin with 6 mattress sutures. After 1 week, the necrotic rumen segment was removed, leaving a rumen fistula in which a 7.5cm cannula was inserted. This was replaced by a 10cm cannula a further 1 week later. The surgery took an average of 30minutes. At least 1 assistant is required for the technique. Results: The overall complication frequency was 7/172 (4%). One cow and 1 heifer aborted less than 10 days after surgery. Two late-pregnant heifers died from peritonitis after insertion of the 7.5cm cannula because of incomplete adhesion of the rumen to the abdominal wall. The exteriorized rumen segment slipped back in the abdomen in 3 cows but was successfully re-clamped prior to insertion of the 7.5cm cannula. Conclusion: A high success rate was achieved with this 2-stage cannulation technique. Postoperative complications were attributed to delayed adhesion of the rumen, perhaps because of stress-related factors (e.g., transport, mixing with other animals, transition period). © 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons. Source


Cortes C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Cortes C.,School of Agricultural Studies of Angers | Palin M.-F.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Gagnon N.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of flax hulls and/or flax oil on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)) in plasma and the mammary gland and the relative mRNA abundance of antioxidant genes in the mammary gland of dairy cows. A total of eight dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. There were four treatments: control with no flax hulls (CONT), 9•88 % flax hulls in the DM (HULL), control with 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (COFO), 9•88 % flax hulls in the DM and 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (HUFO). Plasma GPX activity tended to decrease with flax oil supplementation. Cows fed HULL had higher levels of CAT, GPX1 and SOD1 mRNA in the mammary gland and lower mRNA abundance of GPX3, SOD2 and SOD3 compared with those fed CONT. Abundance of CAT, GPX1, GPX3, SOD2 and SOD3 mRNA was down-regulated in the mammary gland of cows fed HUFO compared to those fed CONT. The mRNA abundance of CAT, GPX1, GPX3 and SOD3 was lower in the mammary gland of cows fed COFO than in the mammary gland of cows fed CONT. The present study demonstrates that flax hulls contribute to increasing the abundance of some antioxidant genes, which can contribute to protecting against oxidative stress damage occurring in the mammary gland and other tissues of dairy cows. © 2011 The Authors. Source


Palin M.-F.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Cortes C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Cortes C.,School of Agricultural Studies of Angers | Benchaar C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

In the present study, the effect of flax hulls with or without flax oil bypassing the rumen on the expression of lipogenic genes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows was investigated. A total of eight dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. There were four periods of 21 d each and four treatments: control diet with no flax hulls (CONT); diet with 9.88% flax hulls in the DM (HULL); control diet with 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (COFO); diet with 9.88% flax hulls in the DM and 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (HUFO). A higher mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor, fatty acid (FA) synthase, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), PPARγ1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-α was observed in cows fed HULL than in those fed CONT, and HUFO had the opposite effect. Compared with CONT, COFO and HUFO lowered the mRNA abundance of SCD, which may explain the lower proportions of MUFA in milk fat with flax oil infusion. The mRNA abundance of LPL in mammary tissue and proportions of long-chain FA in milk fat were higher in cows fed COFO than in those fed CONT. The highest proportions of trans FA were observed when cows were fed HULL. The present study demonstrates that flax hulls with or without flax oil infusion in the abomasum can affect the expression of lipogenic genes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows, which may contribute to the improvement of milk FA profile. Copyright © The Authors 2013. Source


Battie-Laclau P.,University of Sao Paulo | Laclau J.-P.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Laclau J.-P.,Sao Paulo State University | Laclau J.-P.,University of Sao Paulo | And 10 more authors.
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2014

Although vast areas in tropical regions have weathered soils with low potassium (K) levels, little is known about the effects of K supply on the photosynthetic physiology of trees. This study assessed the effects of K and sodium (Na) supply on the diffusional and biochemical limitations to photosynthesis in Eucalyptus grandis leaves. A field experiment comparing treatments receiving K (+K) or Na (+Na) with a control treatment (C) was set up in a K-deficient soil. The net CO2 assimilation rates were twice as high in +K and 1.6 times higher in +Na than in the C as a result of lower stomatal and mesophyll resistance to CO2 diffusion and higher photosynthetic capacity. The starch content was higher and soluble sugar was lower in +K than in C and +Na, suggesting that K starvation disturbed carbon storage and transport. The specific leaf area, leaf thickness, parenchyma thickness, stomatal size and intercellular air spaces increased in +K and +Na compared to C. Nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations were also higher in +K and +Na than in C. These results suggest a strong relationship between the K and Na supply to E. grandis trees and the functional and structural limitations to CO2 assimilation rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.2.3-04 | Award Amount: 4.45M | Year: 2013

Optilfel has as its ultimate goal to contribute to elders health by combating denutrition due to both physical capacities diminution and appetite loss. The concept of Optifel is to translate the knowledge on nutritional needs, food preferences and physical capacities into accurate specifications for food products and packaging. Food products (including packaging and food serving methods) will then be elaborated using both traditional and alternative technologies to meet these specifications and their acceptance tested by elderly. The population targeted by the project is elderly persons cooking at home or making use of meal-on-wheels services for whom the project will conceive food products adapted to their taste, habits, needs and constraints. The range of solutions envisaged span from taste and texture to nutritional quality, and microbial safety through packaging and delivery mode. Optifel will test the approach on fruit and vegetable products, which traditionally constitute a high part of elderly diet, offer great variety, and are amenable to texture manipulation. Optifel aims to - collect, refine and formalise user needs and expectations in terms of sensory and nutritional quality, texture, packagings cognitive and biomechanical ergonomics, and preparation convenience. - translate elders and caregivers needs and expectations into food products and packaging functional specifications to be delivered under the form of conceptual food models. - design and develop food processing and packaging to produce prototypes fulfilling the specifications. - assess the actual properties of the prototypes after food preparation and identify criticalpoints during final preparation and serving. - test the prototype products in meals-on-wheels and in nursing homes to evaluate their acceptance by elderly persons and care-givers.

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