London, United Kingdom

The School of Advanced Study, a postgraduate institution of the University of London, is the UK's national centre for the promotion and facilitation of research in the humanities and social science. It was established in 1994 and is located in Senate House, in Bloomsbury, central London, close to the British Museum, British Library and several of the colleges of the University of London. The School brings together ten prestigious research institutes, many of which have long and distinguished histories, to provide a large range of specialist research services, facilities and resources. Through its many activities the School's core aim is to provide an environment for the support, evaluation and pursuit of research which is accessible to postgraduate, postdoctoral and senior members of all Higher Education institutions in the United Kingdom and beyond. Wikipedia.


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Gunn K.L.,University of Warwick | Seers K.,University of Warwick | Posner N.,University of Warwick | Posner N.,School of Advanced Study, University of London | Coates V.,University of Ulster
Health and Social Care in the Community | Year: 2012

This paper reports on the role of family members in everyday diabetes self-care and in diabetic crises. It is based on qualitative data drawn from 45 semi-structured interviews with a wide range of people with an established diagnosis of Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, who were admitted to hospital for urgent or emergency treatment in connection with their diabetes. The interviews were carried out in two contrasting sites in the United Kingdom in 2009-2010, transcribed and analysed thematically with particular reference to framework analysis methods. We found that family involvement in self-care was common, and the role of family and friends was especially important when the person with diabetes needed urgent help. We comment on the diversity of family members who assisted regularly or dealt with crises, the importance of taking account of the complexities of family life, including reciprocal care, and the particular problems faced by people without family support. Finally, we make recommendations for further research and for improvements in existing services. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Velasco C.,University of Oxford | Woods A.T.,Xperiment | Deroy O.,School of Advanced Study, University of London | Spence C.,University of Oxford
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

Crossmodal correspondences between gustatory (taste), olfactory (smell), and flavour stimuli on the one hand and visual attributes on the other have been extensively documented in recent years. For instance, people have been shown to consistently match specific tastes and flavours to particular visual shapes. That said, further research is still needed in order to clarify how and why such correspondences exist. Here, we report a series of four experiments designed to assess what drives people's matching of visual roundness/angularity to both 'basic' taste names and actual tastants. In Experiment 1, crossmodal correspondences between taste names and abstract shapes were assessed. Next, the results were replicated in a larger online study (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 assessed the role of liking in the association between taste words and morphed shapes along the roundness/angularity dimension. In Experiment 4, basic tastants were mapped to the roundness/angularity dimension, while the mediating role of liking for each taste was assessed. Across the 4 experiments, participants consistently matched sweetness to roundness. What is more, people's liking for a taste (but not their liking for imagined tastes) appeared to influence their shape matching responses. These results are discussed in terms of crossmodal correspondences, and a potential role for hedonics is outlined. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Deroy O.,School of Advanced Study, University of London | Spence C.,University of Oxford
Multisensory Research | Year: 2016

The renewed interest that has emerged around the topic of crossmodal correspondences in recent years has demonstrated that crossmodal matchings and mappings exist between the majority of sensory dimensions, and across all combinations of sensory modalities. This renewed interest also offers a rapidly-growing list of ways in which correspondences affect - or interact with - metaphorical understanding, feelings of 'knowing', behavioral tasks, learning, mental imagery, and perceptual experiences. Here we highlight why, more generally, crossmodal correspondences matter to theories of multisensory interactions. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2015.


Deroy O.,School of Advanced Study, University of London
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2014

Given that multiple senses are often stimulated at the same time, perceptual awareness is most likely to take place in multisensory situations. However, theories of awareness are based on studies and models established for a single sense (mostly vision). Here, we consider the methodological and theoretical challenges raised by taking a multisensory perspective on perceptual awareness. First, we consider how well tasks designed to study unisensory awareness perform when used in multisensory settings, stressing that studies using binocular rivalry, bistable figure perception, continuous flash suppression, the attentional blink, repetition blindness and backward masking can demonstrate multisensory influences on unisensory awareness, but fall short of tackling multisensory awareness directly. Studies interested in the latter phenomenon rely on a method of subjective contrast and can, at best, delineate conditions under which individuals report experiencing a multisensory object or two unisensory objects. As there is not a perfect match between these conditions and those in which multisensory integration and binding occur, the link between awareness and binding advocated for visual information processing needs to be revised for multisensory cases. These challenges point at the need to question the very idea of multisensory awareness.


Deroy O.,School of Advanced Study, University of London | Chen Y.-C.,McMaster University | Spence C.,University of Oxford
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Given that multiple senses are often stimulated at the same time, perceptual awareness is most likely to take place in multisensory situations. However, theories of awareness are based on studies and models established for a single sense (mostly vision). Here, we consider the methodological and theoretical challenges raised by taking a multisensory perspective on perceptual awareness. First, we consider how well tasks designed to study unisensory awareness perform when used in multisensory settings, stressing that studies using binocular rivalry, bistable figure perception, continuous flash suppression, the attentional blink, repetition blindness and backward masking can demonstrate multisensory influences on unisensory awareness, but fall short of tackling multisensory awareness directly. Studies interested in the latter phenomenon rely on a method of subjective contrast and can, at best, delineate conditions under which individuals report experiencing a multisensory object or two unisensory objects. As there is not a perfect match between these conditions and those in which multisensory integration and binding occur, the link between awareness and binding advocated for visual information processing needs to be revised for multisensory cases. These challenges point at the need to question the very idea of multisensory awareness. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Woods A.T.,Xperiment | Spence C.,University of Oxford | Butcher N.,York St John University | Deroy O.,School of Advanced Study, University of London
i-Perception | Year: 2013

According to a popular family of hypotheses, crossmodal matches between distinct features hold because they correspond to the same polarity on several conceptual dimensions (such as active-passive, good-bad, etc.) that can be identified using the semantic differential technique. The main problem here resides in turning this hypothesis into testable empirical predictions. In the present study, we outline a series of plausible consequences of the hypothesis and test a variety of well-established and previously untested crossmodal correspondences by means of a novel internetbased testing methodology. The results highlight that the semantic hypothesis cannot easily explain differences in the prevalence of crossmodal associations built on the same semantic pattern (fast lemons, slow prunes, sour boulders, heavy red); furthermore, the semantic hypothesis only minimally predicts what happens when the semantic dimensions and polarities that are supposed to drive such crossmodal associations are made more salient (e.g., by adding emotional cues that ought to make the good/bad dimension more salient); finally, the semantic hypothesis does not explain why reliable matches are no longer observed once intramodal dimensions with congruent connotations are presented (e.g., visually presented shapes and colour do not appear to correspond). © 2013 A T Woods, C Spence, N Butcher, O. Deroy.


Cantor D.J.,School of Advanced Study, University of London
International Journal of Refugee Law | Year: 2012

This opinion addresses the question of whether international humanitarian law (IHL) prohibits the forced displacement of civilians during armed conflict. It argues that the relevant rules of IHL do not take as their starting point a general prohibition of displacement. Rather, the author contends that the laws of war depart from an understanding of this phenomenon as a sad and often inevitable fact of war. As a result, only certain forms of forced displacement are directly regulated by this body of rules. The opinion is written in a concise format with the non-specialist humanitarian practitioner in mind. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Spence C.,University of Oxford | Ngo M.K.,University of Oxford | Ngo M.K.,California State University, Long Beach | Percival B.,Neals Yard Dairy | Smith B.,School of Advanced Study, University of London
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2013

Several recent studies have demonstrated the existence of robust crossmodal correspondences between food and beverage items and shapes varying on the angular-round continuum. To date, however, the majority of this research has involved relatively simple gustatory, oral-somatosensory, and/or olfactory stimuli. In the present study, therefore, we extended this research in order to investigate whether people also exhibit robust crossmodal correspondences between shapes and cheese. To this end, participants in Experiment 1 (conducted at a Gastronomy event) tasted three aged farmhouse cheeses (Keen's Cheddar, Tunworth, & Berkswell, from Neal's Yard Dairy, UK). Participants rated each cheese using a single response scale anchored at either end by a rounded and an angular shape. Significant differences in shape symbolism were observed across the three cheeses. In Experiments 2 (conducted with cheesemongers and cheese experts) and 3 (conducted with customers in a cheese store), participants separately rated the olfactory, gustatory, and oral-somatosensory attributes of different cheeses (Tunworth, Lancashire, and Stawley) on the angular-round continuum. The results revealed that participants' crossmodal correspondences were based primarily on the taste, rather than the smell or texture of the cheeses. Implications of these findings for the marketing of dairy products are discussed. Practical applications: The results of the present study demonstrate that taste is the leading contributor to the systematic associations consumers have between the flavors of cheese and certain angular/sharp or organic/round shapes and speech sounds, with the same pattern of crossmodal correspondences being held across different tasting groups (non-experts, regular consumers, and cheesemongers/experts). These results provide insights regarding the abstract imagery that might best be associated with specific taste attributes in commercial cheeses. These results may also be used to not only develop abstract imagery for product packaging that can capture specific shape/sound symbolic properties, but also to develop descriptors that can provide a common ground on which to talk about cheeses, thereby improving communication between different panels of cheese tasters. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Serna N.R.,School of Advanced Study, University of London
International Journal of Refugee Law | Year: 2016

Central America's 'Northern Triangle' (El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras) is now among the most violent areas in the world due to the confluence of drug trafficking, gang culture, and lack of state control in some areas. As a result, thousands have fled to seek protection abroad. Nevertheless, asylum rates do not seem properly to acknowledge that a large proportion of these individuals may be entitled to refugee status or other forms of international protection. The purpose of this paper is to study how the particular characteristics of these forms of violence create international protection needs and how law and practice have responded to them. This issue is further explored through an analysis of eleven protection profiles from the region and their particular challenges in obtaining international protection. © The Author (2016).


Giglioni G.,School of Advanced Study, University of London
Early Science and Medicine | Year: 2012

This article examines the philosophical implications underlying Bacon's views on historical knowledge, paying special attention to that variety of historical knowledge described by Bacon as "natural." More specifically, this article explores the interplay of history (historia) and fable (fabula). In the sphere of thought, fabula is the equivalent to materia in nature. Both are described by Bacon as being "versatile" and "pliant." In Bacon's system of knowledge, philosophy, as the domain of reason, starts from historiae and fabulae, once memory and the imagination have fulfilled their cognitive tasks. This means that, for Bacon, there is no such thing as a pure use of reason. He advocates a kind of reason that, precisely because it is involved with matter's inner motions (its "appetites," in Bacon's characteristic language), is constitutively 'impure'. The article shows how the terms historia and fabula cover key semantic areas in defining Bacon's philosophy: historia may mean "history" as well as "story," fabula "myth" as well "story." In both cases, we can see significant oscillations from a stronger meaning (close to those of matter and nature) to a weaker one (connected to wit and imagination), as if the power of nature decreases moving from histories and myths to stories. On the other hand, there are cases in which Bacon seems to stick to a diachronic view of the meaning of fables and histories, such that the transition from myths to history, especially natural history, is described as a collective effort towards reality and enlightenment. © 2012 Brill.

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