PubMed | School and Counseling Psychology. and University of Missouri
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Health education research | Year: 2015
Chronic health conditions and multiple health risk factors afflict Americans and burden employers, but effective, affordable, workplace-based health promotion interventions have not been widely implemented. This is the first study to adapt the empirically validated Chronic Disease Self-Management Program for a general employee population in a workplace setting with an emphasis on disease prevention and health promotion. A quasi-experimental, wellness standard of care comparison, prospective cohort design was used among employee participants at a large University employer. Ninety-one individuals participated in the program. Participants reported significantly increased health behavior frequency and self-efficacy after the intervention, compared with their pre-intervention scores, and improvements were sustained at 3-month follow-up [self-rated abilities for health practices scale (SRA): F = 30.89, P < 0.001; health promoting lifestyle profile-II (HPLP-II): F = 36.30 P < 0.001]. Individuals in the intervention group reported improved self-efficacy and health behaviors compared with the wellness standard of care comparison group at post intervention (SRA: F = 12.45, P < 0.001; HPLP-II: F = 25.28, P < 0.001). Adapting lay-facilitated self-management for the workplace offers promise as a replicable, scalable, affordable model for culture change in organizations.
Borden L.A.,School and Counseling Psychology |
Martens M.P.,School and Counseling Psychology |
McBride M.A.,University of Missouri |
Sheline K.T.,School and Counseling Psychology |
And 2 more authors.
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2011
Previous research has examined protective behavioral strategies (PBS), or cognitive-behavioral strategies that may be employed when using alcohol to reduce consumption and related problems, as an important predictor of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. More recently, studies have explored the mediating and moderating role of PBS on the relationships between key alcohol-related risk factors (i.e., drinking motives, depressive symptoms, binge drinking) and alcohol problems; however, current research examining PBS as a moderator of the relationship between alcohol use and related problems has methodological limitations. The purpose of the present study was to extend previous literature to examine the moderating effect of PBS on the relationship between binge drinking and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected and analyzed from 4,154 students at 13 midwestern universities. Findings indicated that PBS moderated the binge drinking-alcohol problems relationship for each of the four measures of binge drinking. However, effects were strongest when binge drinking was measured dichotomously versus continuously. Implications and future directions are discussed. © 2011 American Psychological Association.
PubMed | School and Counseling Psychology., University of Missouri and University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of consulting and clinical psychology | Year: 2015
Alcohol misuse is a significant public health concern. Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs) involve the use of personalized information about ones drinking behaviors and can be delivered in person or via computer. The relative efficacy of these delivery methods remains an unanswered question. The primary aim of the current meta-analysis was to identify and directly compare randomized clinical trials of in-person PFIs and computer-delivered PFIs.A total of 14 intervention comparisons from 13 manuscripts, of which 9 were college samples, were examined: in-person PFIs (N = 1,240; 49% female; 74% White) and computer-delivered PFIs (N = 1,201; 53% female; 73% White). Independent coders rated sample characteristics, study information, study design, intervention content, and study outcomes.Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated using random-effects models. At short follow-up (4 months), there were no differences between in-person PFIs and computer-delivered PFIs on any alcohol use variable or alcohol-related problems. At long follow-up (>4 months), in-person PFIs were more effective than computer-delivered PFIs at impacting overall drinking quantity (d = .18) and drinks per week (d = .19). These effects were not moderated by sample characteristics.For assessing alcohol outcomes at shorter follow-ups, there were no differences between delivery modality. At longer follow-ups, in-person PFIs demonstrated some advantages over computer-delivered PFIs. We encourage researchers to continue to examine direct comparisons between these delivery modalities and to further examine the efficacy of in-person PFIs at longer follow-ups. (PsycINFO Database Record
Lisha N.E.,University of Southern California |
Martens M.,School and Counseling Psychology |
Leventhal A.M.,University of Southern California
Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2011
Objective: Understanding moderators of the relationship between physical activity (PA) and alcohol use is important for clarifying the mechanisms underlying these behaviors and informing health promotion interventions. This study examined age and gender as two candidate moderators of the PA-alcohol use link. Method: As part of a correlational, cross-sectional population-based study of US 34,653 adults, participants were administered surveys assessing demographics, alcohol use, moderate and vigorous PA, and other characteristics. Composite indices of the frequency and quantity of alcohol use and PA were utilized in analyses. Results: Age moderated the association between past-year vigorous PA and alcohol use (ps ≥ 01). Vigorous PA was positively associated with alcohol use in individuals under 50. years of age (ps ≥ 05), but not in individuals over 50. years of age (ps ≥ 0.05). Gender moderated the association between past-year moderate PA and alcohol use (ps < 001). The relation was stronger in males (β=.72) than in females (β=.41). Each of the findings remained significant even when controlling for demographics, psychiatric variables, and other potential confounds. Conclusion: Among the American population of adults, age appears to moderate the relationship between vigorous PA and alcohol use, whereas gender appears to moderate the relationship between moderate PA and alcohol use. These findings shed light on the underlying mechanisms that may account for increased alcohol use in exercisers and may have clinical implications for alcohol screening and interventions in adults who lead active lifestyles. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
PubMed | School and Counseling Psychology. and Wellness Resource Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of consulting and clinical psychology | Year: 2015
College students have been shown to be at higher risk than the general adult population for gambling-related problems. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a personalized feedback only intervention (PFB) among at-risk college student gamblers.Three hundred thirty-three college students who met screening criteria were randomized into 1 of 3 conditions: PFB, education only (EDU), or assessment only (AO).At 3-month follow-up, individuals in the PFB condition reported fewer dollars gambled and fewer gambling-related problems than those in the AO condition. There were no differences between those in the EDU and the AO conditions, or between those in the PFB and the EDU conditions.These findings are consistent with clinical trials examining other health behaviors, and have implications for the development and delivery of effective intervention programming for at-risk gamblers.
PubMed | School and Counseling Psychology., University of North Dakota and Mexico State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of counseling psychology | Year: 2014
The current study tests a model of academic satisfaction in engineering based on Lent, Brown, and Hacketts (1994, 2000) social cognitive career theory among a sample of 527 engineering majors attending a Hispanic serving institution. The findings indicated that (a) an alternative bidirectional model fit the data for the full sample; (b) all of the hypothesized relations were significant for the full sample, except the path from engineering interests to goals; (c) social cognitive career theory predictors accounted for a significant amount of variance in engineering goals (26.6%) and academic satisfaction (45.1%); and (d) the model parameters did not vary across men and women or across Latino/a and White engineering undergraduate students. Implications for research and practice are discussed in relation to persistence in engineering among women and Latinos/as.
PubMed | School and Counseling Psychology. and Heart and Soul of Change Project.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Psychotherapy (Chicago, Ill.) | Year: 2015
Despite overall psychotherapy efficacy (Lambert, 2013), many clients do not benefit (Reese, Duncan, Bohanske, Owen, & Minami, 2014), dropouts are a problem (Swift & Greenberg, 2012), and therapists vary significantly in success rates (Baldwin & Imel, 2013), are poor judges of negative outcomes (Chapman et al., 2012), and grossly overestimate their effectiveness (Walfish, McAlister, ODonnell, & Lambert, 2012). Systematic client feedback offers 1 solution (Duncan, 2014). Several feedback systems have emerged (Castonguay, Barkham, Lutz, & McAleavey, 2013), but only 2 have randomized clinical trial support and are included in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administrations National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices: The Outcome Questionnaire-45.2 System (Lambert, 2010) and the Partners for Change Outcome Management System (PCOMS; Duncan, 2012). This article presents the current status of PCOMS, the psychometrics of the PCOMS measures, its empirical support, and its clinical and training applications. Future directions and implications of PCOMS research, training, and practice are detailed. Finally, we propose that systematic feedback offers a way, via large-scale data collection, to reprioritize what matters to psychotherapy outcome, reclaim our empirically validated core values and identity, and change the conversation from a medical model dominated discourse to a more scientific, relational perspective.
PubMed | School and Counseling Psychology.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Psychotherapy (Chicago, Ill.) | Year: 2011
Using outcome data on a continual basis to monitor treatment progress has been identified as a way to enhance psychotherapy outcome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a continuous feedback assessment system, the Partners for Change Outcome Management System (PCOMS; Miller & Duncan, 2004). Findings from 2 client samples that attended individual therapy at a university counseling center (N = 74) or a graduate training clinic (N = 74) indicated that clients who used PCOMS with their therapists (feedback condition) demonstrated statistically significant treatment gains when compared to clients receiving treatment as usual (no-feedback condition). Clients using PCOMS were also more likely to experience reliable change and in fewer sessions. A survival analysis demonstrated that approximately 50% of the clients in the feedback condition demonstrated reliable change after the 7th (graduate training clinic) or 9th session (university counseling center). Further findings, limitations of the study and ideas for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).