Jahn K.,Schon Klinik Bad Aibling |
Jahn K.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
Heinze C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
Selge C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
And 2 more authors.
Nervenarzt | Year: 2015
Conclusion: Identification of deficits is a prerequisite for specific therapy. As physical activity protects against cognitive impairment, reduces the risk of falling and improves overall quality of life, a structured assessment of causes for gait impairment is crucial.Results: Common causes of disturbed gait in the elderly are neurological deficits, including sensory deficits (e.g. peripheral neuropathy and vestibulopathy), neurodegeneration (e.g. cerebellar ataxia and parkinsonian syndromes, cognitive impairment (e.g. degenerative dementia), degeneration of joints (e.g. coxarthrosis) and general loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia). Furthermore, a fear of falling also contributes to the gait disorder. Multimodal therapies are often necessary and the principles are presented.Background: Slow walking with reduced body dynamics is a characteristic feature of locomotion in the elderly. Impaired mobility and falls associated with gait disorders significantly contribute to a reduced quality of life in the elderly.Objectives: A gait disorder is not an inevitable consequence of aging. This article shows that it is worth recognizing specific deficits and differentiating specific aspects in multifactorial disorders because many causes can be well treated. Also provided are the bases for clinical classification and therapeutic principles.Methods: Review of recent literature and clinical review based on own experience and own scientific results. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source
Giacino J.T.,JFK Johnson Rehabilitation Institute |
Whyte J.,Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute |
Bagiella E.,Columbia University |
Kalmar K.,JFK Johnson Rehabilitation Institute |
And 17 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012
BACKGROUND: Amantadine hydrochloride is one of the most commonly prescribed medications for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness after traumatic brain injury. Preliminary studies have suggested that amantadine may promote functional recovery. METHODS: We enrolled 184 patients who were in a vegetative or minimally conscious state 4 to 16 weeks after traumatic brain injury and who were receiving inpatient rehabilitation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive amantadine or placebo for 4 weeks and were followed for 2 weeks after the treatment was discontinued. The rate of functional recovery on the Disability Rating Scale (DRS; range, 0 to 29, with higher scores indicating greater disability) was compared over the 4 weeks of treatment (primary outcome) and during the 2-week washout period with the use of mixed-effects regression models. RESULTS: During the 4-week treatment period, recovery was significantly faster in the amantadine group than in the placebo group, as measured by the DRS score (difference in slope, 0.24 points per week; P = 0.007), indicating a benefit with respect to the primary outcome measure. In a prespecified subgroup analysis, the treatment effect was similar for patients in a vegetative state and those in a minimally conscious state. The rate of improvement in the amantadine group slowed during the 2 weeks after treatment (weeks 5 and 6) and was significantly slower than the rate in the placebo group (difference in slope, 0.30 points per week; P = 0.02). The overall improvement in DRS scores between baseline and week 6 (2 weeks after treatment was discontinued) was similar in the two groups. There were no significant differences in the incidence of serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Amantadine accelerated the pace of functional recovery during active treatment in patients with post-traumatic disorders of consciousness. (Funded by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00970944.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source
Kopczak A.,Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry |
Krewer C.,Schon Klinik Bad Aibling |
Schneider M.,Schon Klinik Bad Aibling |
Kreitschmann-Andermahr I.,University of Duisburg - Essen |
And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2015
Previous reports suggest that neuroendocrine disturbances in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) or aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may still develop or resolve months or even years after the trauma. We investigated a cohort of n = 168 patients (81 patients after TBI and 87 patients after SAH) in whom hormone levels had been determined at various time points to assess the course and pattern of hormonal insufficiencies. Data were analyzed using three different criteria: (1) patients with lowered basal laboratory values; (2) patients with lowered basal laboratory values or the need for hormone replacement therapy; (3) diagnosis of the treating physician. The first hormonal assessment after a median time of three months after the injury showed lowered hormone laboratory test results in 35% of cases. Lowered testosterone (23.1% of male patients), lowered estradiol (14.3% of female patients) and lowered insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) values (12.1%) were most common. Using Criterion 2, a higher prevalence rate of 55.6% of cases was determined, which correlated well with the prevalence rate of 54% of cases using the physicians’ diagnosis as the criterion. Intraindividual changes (new onset insufficiency or recovery) were predominantly observed for the somatotropic axis (12.5%), the gonadotropic axis in women (11.1%) and the corticotropic axis (10.6%). Patients after TBI showed more often lowered IGF-I values at first testing, but normal values at follow-up (p < 0.0004). In general, most patients remained stable. Stable hormone results at follow-up were obtained in 78% (free thyroxine (fT4) values) to 94.6% (prolactin values). © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source
Kopczak A.,Schon Klinik Bad Aibling |
Von Rosen F.,Schon Klinik Bad Staffelstein |
Krewer C.,Schon Klinik Bad Aibling |
Schneider H.J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2011
Objective: The insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of GH deficiency (GHD) and hypocortisolism. As hypopituitarism is a common disorder after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the test is increasingly used in patients with pre-existing brain damage. Design: A cross-sectional, observational study. Methods: Fifty-six patients (41 TBI and 15 SAH) were tested with the ITT (0.15 IE/kg body weight, mean glucose 33 mg/dl). In 38 patients, the test was performed in a supine position; the other 18 patients were in a sitting position during the ITT. Results: Hypocortisolism and GHD were more often diagnosed in a supine than in a sitting position (hypocortisolism: 55.3% supine versus 0% sitting, P<0.0001; GHD: 42.1% supine versus 11.1% sitting, P=0.03). Patients in a sitting position suffered more often from symptoms such as tachycardia (61.1% sitting versus 15.8% supine, P=0.001), trembling (22.2 vs 7.9%, NS), and sweating (66.7 vs 28.9%, P=0.007). There were no significant differences between the groups in drowsiness (72.2% sitting versus 65.8% supine, NS), dizziness (44.4 vs 44.7%, NS), and fatigue (33.3 vs 15.8%, NS). Because of somnolence, the hypoglycemic state could only be stopped with i.v. administration of glucose in 25 supine patients (66%). In contrast, none of the 18 patients (0%) tested in a sitting position got somnolent or was in need of i.v. application of glucose (P<0.001). Conclusions: In patients with brain injury, posture might affect rates of diagnosing GHD and hypocortisolism and sympathetic symptoms in the ITT. These findings are exploratory and need replication in a standardized setting. © 2011 European Society of Endocrinology. Source
Kerkhoff G.,Saarland University |
Reinhart S.,Saarland University |
Ziegler W.,Neuropsychologische Klinik |
Artinger F.,Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences |
And 2 more authors.
Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair | Year: 2013
Background. No treatment for auditory neglect and no randomized controlled trial evaluating smooth pursuit eye movement therapy (SPT) for multimodal neglect are available. Objective. To compare the effects of SPT and visual scanning therapy (VST) on auditory and visual neglect in chronic stroke patients with neglect. Methods. A randomized, prospective trial was conducted. Fifty patients with left auditory and visual neglect were randomly assigned. Twenty-four patients completed SPT therapy and 21 patients VST. Five patients (4 VST, 1 SPT) were lost. Each group received 1-hour sessions of neglect therapy for 5 consecutive days totaling 5 hours. Outcome measures in visual neglect (digit cancellation, visuoperceptual- and motor line bisection, paragraph reading) and auditory neglect (auditory midline) were assessed twice before therapy, thereafter, and at 2-week follow-up. The SPT group practiced smooth pursuit eye movements while tracking stimuli moving leftward. The VST group systematically scanned the same but static stimuli. Both groups were divided into subgroups, and effects were separately investigated for mild and severe neglect. Results. Both groups did not differ before therapy in clinical/demographic variables or neglect severity (auditory/visual). After treatment, the SPT group showed significant and lasting improvements in all visual measures and normal performance in the auditory midline. Neither visual nor auditory neglect impairments changed significantly after VST. Moreover, the treatment effect sizes (Cohen's d) were considerably higher for visual and auditory neglect after SPT versus VST, both for mild and severe neglect. Conclusions. Repetitive contralesional, smooth pursuit training induces superior, multimodal therapeutic effects in mild and severe neglect. © The Author(s) 2013. Source