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Smith L.P.,Schneider Childrens Hospital | Roy S.,University of Houston
American Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery

Purpose: The aim of the study was to characterize the causes of operating room (OR) fires in otolaryngology. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was designed to elicit the characteristics of OR fires experienced by otolaryngologists. The survey was advertised to 8523 members of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Results: Three hundred forty-nine questionnaires were completed. Eighty-eight surgeons (25.2%) witnessed at least one OR fire in their career, 10 experienced 2 fires each, and 2 reported 5 fires each. Of 106 reported fires, details were available for 100. The most common ignition sources were an electrosurgical unit (59%), a laser (32%), and a light cord (7%). Twenty-seven percent of fires occurred during endoscopic airway surgery, 24% during oropharyngeal surgery, 23% during cutaneous or transcutaneous surgery of the head and neck, and 18% during tracheostomy; 7% were related to a light cord, and 1% was related to an anesthesia machine. Eighty-one percent of fires occurred while supplemental oxygen was in use. Common fuels included an endotracheal tube (31%), OR drapes/towels (18%), and flash fire (where no substrate burned) (11%). Less common fuels included alcohol-based preparation solution, gauze sponges, patient's hair or skin, electrosurgical unit with retrofitted insulation over the tip, tracheostomy tube, tonsil sponge, suction tubing, a cottonoid pledget, and a red rubber catheter. Conclusions: OR fire may occur in a wide variety of clinical settings; endoscopic airway surgery, oropharyngeal surgery, cutaneous surgery, and tracheostomy present the highest risk for otolaryngologists. Electrosurgical devices and lasers are the most likely to produce ignition. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Barrett D.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia | Fish J.D.,Schneider Childrens Hospital | Grupp S.A.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia | Grupp S.A.,University of Pennsylvania
Pediatric Clinics of North America

Since the 1950s, the overall survival of children with cancer has gone from almost zero to approaching 80%. Although there have been notable successes in treating solid tumors such as Wilms tumor, some childhood solid tumors have continued to elude effective therapy. With the use of megatherapy techniques such as tandem transplantation, dose escalation has been pushed to the edge of dose-limiting toxicities, and any further improvements in event-free survival will have to be achieved through novel therapeutic approaches. This article reviews the status of autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for many pediatric solid tumor types. Most of the clinical experience in transplant for pediatric solid tumors is in the autologous setting, so some general principles of autologous HSCT are reviewed. The article then examines HSCT for diseases such as Hodgkin disease, Ewing sarcoma, and neuroblastoma, and the future of cell-based therapies by considering some experimental approaches to cell therapies. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Palmer L.S.,Schneider Childrens Hospital
Current Urology Reports

Significant progress has been made over the past 15 years regarding the development of bladder control and the evaluation and management of pediatric voiding dysfunction. Incontinence is a problem of significant social consequence that is commonly due to dysfunctional voiding (ie, discoordination between the detrusor and the external sphincter). Biofeedback was introduced in 1979 but was relatively forgotten until the late 1990 s. Nonanimated biofeedback relates sphincter activity to electromyographic activity as reflected as tracing on a computer screen or auditory feedback. This successful modality was exclusively available until recently when animated biofeedback became available, allowing for a more rapid grasp of the physiologic event to be modulated. Biofeedback has been shown to be very effective in children to correct incontinence secondary to dysfunctional voiding, as well as in treating giggle incontinence and to help resolve vesicoureteral reflux. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Giannini E.H.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Ilowite N.T.,Yeshiva University | Lovell D.J.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Wallace C.A.,Childrens Hospital and Regional Medical Center | And 7 more authors.
Arthritis and Rheumatism

Objective To evaluate the effects of long-term etanercept treatment, with or without methotrexate, on growth in children with selected categories of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods We conducted a 3-year, open-label, nonrandomized registry of 594 patients with polyarticular or systemic JIA treated with etanercept only, etanercept plus methotrexate, or methotrexate only. Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were assessed at baseline and at years 1, 2, and 3, using percentiles derived from US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention standardized growth charts. Results Statistically significant increases in the mean height percentiles from baseline were observed in etanercept-treated patients at year 3 (4.8 percentile points) and in patients treated with etanercept plus methotrexate at years 1, 2, and 3 (2.4, 3.3, and 5.6 percentile points, respectively). Statistically significant increases from baseline in the mean weight percentiles were observed at years 1, 2, and 3 in both the etanercept group (7.4, 10.0, and 13.0 percentile points) and the etanercept-plus-methotrexate group (2.9, 6.9, and 8.4 percentile points, respectively). Statistically significant increases from baseline in the mean BMI percentiles were observed in both the etanercept group (range 9.6-13.8 percentile points) and the etanercept-plus-methotrexate group (range 2.1-5.2 percentile points). The mean height, weight, and BMI percentiles did not change significantly in patients in the methotrexate-only group. Conclusion Etanercept treatment, with or without methotrexate, may contribute to the restoration of normal growth in children with JIA. © 2010 by the American College of Rheumatology. Source

Stephenson E.A.,University of Toronto | Lu M.,New England Research Institutes, Inc. | Berul C.I.,Childrens Hospital Boston | Etheridge S.P.,Primary Childrens Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Objectives Our aim was to examine the prevalence of arrhythmias and identify independent associations of time to arrhythmia development. Background Since introduction of the Fontan operation in 1971, long-term results have steadily improved with newer modifications. However, atrial arrhythmias are frequent and contribute to ongoing morbidity and mortality. Data are lacking regarding the prevalence of arrhythmias and risk factors for their development in the current era. Methods The Pediatric Heart Network Fontan Cross-Sectional study evaluated data from 7 centers, with 520 patients age 6 to 18 years (mean 8.6 ± 3.4 years after the Fontan operation), including echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, exercise testing, parent-reported Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) results, and medical history. Results Supraventricular tachycardias were present in 9.4% of patients. Intra-atrial re-entrant tachycardia (IART) was present in 7.3% (32 of 520). The hazard of IART decreased until 4 to 6 years post-Fontan, and then increased with age thereafter. Cardiac anatomy and resting heart rate (including marked bradycardia) were not associated with IART. We identified 3 independent associations of time to occurrence of IART: lower CHQ physical summary score (p < 0.001); predominant rhythm (p = 0.002; highest risk with paced rhythm), and type of Fontan operation (p = 0.037; highest risk with atriopulmonary connection). Time to IART did not differ between patients with lateral tunnel and extracardiac conduit types of Fontan repair. Ventricular tachycardia was noted in 3.5% of patients. Conclusions Overall prevalence of IART was lower in this cohort (7.3%) than previously reported. Lower functional status, an atriopulmonary connection, and paced rhythm were determined to be independently associated with development of IART after Fontan. (Relationship Between Functional Health Status and Ventricular Performance After FontanPediatric Heart Network; NCT00132782) © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

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