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Gießen, Germany

Mazurek S.,Justus Liebig University | Mazurek S.,ScheBo Biotech AG
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology

Cell proliferation only proceeds when metabolism is capable of providing a budget of metabolic intermediates that is adequate to ensure both energy regeneration and the synthesis of cell building blocks in sufficient amounts. In tumor cells, the glycolytic pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 (PKM2, M2-PK) determines whether glucose is converted to lactate for regeneration of energy (active tetrameric form, Warburg effect) or used for the synthesis of cell building blocks (nearly inactive dimeric form). This review discusses the regulation mechanisms of pyruvate kinase M2 expression by different transcription factors as well as the regulation of pyruvate kinase M2 activity by direct interaction with certain oncoproteins, tyrosine and serine phosphorylation, binding of phosphotyrosine peptides, association with other glycolytic and non glycolytic enzymes, the promyelocytic leukemia tumor suppressor protein, as well as metabolic intermediates. An intervention in the regulation mechanisms of the expression, activity and tetramer to dimer ratio of pyruvate kinase M2 has severe consequences for metabolism as well as proliferation and tumorigenic capacity of the cells which makes this enzyme a promising target for potential therapeutic approaches. The quantification of the dimeric form of pyruvate kinase M2 (Tumor M2-PK) in plasma and stool allows early detection of tumors and therapy control. Several different mechanisms may induce a translocation of pyruvate kinase M2 into the nucleus. The role of pyruvate kinase M2 in the nucleus is complex as witnessed by evidence of its effect both as pro-proliferative as well as pro-apoptotic stimuli. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Mazurek S.,Justus Liebig University | Mazurek S.,ScheBo Biotech AG
Biomedical Research

Tumor cells are characterized by an over expression of the glycolytic pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 (abbreviations: M2-PK or PKM2). In tumor metabolism the quaternary structure of M2-PK (tetramer:dimer ratio) determines whether glucose is used for glycolytic energy regeneration (highly active tetrameric form, Warburg effect) or synthesis of cell building blocks (nearly inactive dimeric form) which are both prerequisites for cells with a high proliferation rate. In tumor cells the nearly inactive dimeric form of M2- PK is predominant due to direct interactions with different oncoproteins. Besides its key functions in tumor metabolism recent studies revealed that M2-PK may also react as protein kinase as well as co activator of transcription factors. Of medical relevance is the quantification of the dimeric form of M2-PK with either an ELISA or point of care rapid test in plasma and stool that is used for follow-up studies during therapy (plasma M2-PK) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening (fecal M2-PK; mean sensitivity for CRC in 12 independent studies with altogether 704 samples: 80% ± 7%). An intervention in the regulation mechanisms of the expression, activity and tetramer: dimer ratio of M2-PK has significant consequences for the proliferation rate and tumorigenic capacity of the tumor cells, making this enzyme an intensively investigated target for tumor therapeutic approaches. In addition, recent studies revealed a role of M2-PK in mast cell degranulation and responses to allergens. Source

Timm T.,Justus Liebig University | Lenz C.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | Lenz C.,University of Gottingen | Merkel D.,AB Sciex Germany GmbH | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry

Phosphorylcholine (PC)-modified biomolecules like lipopolysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and (glyco)proteins are widespread, highly relevant antigens of parasites, since this small hapten shows potent immunomodulatory capacity, which allows the establishment of long-lasting infections of the host. Especially for PC-modified proteins, structural data is rare because of the zwitterionic nature of the PC substituent, resulting in low sensitivities and unusual but characteristic fragmentation patterns. We have developed a targeted mass spectrometric approach using hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap (QTRAP) mass spectrometry coupled to nanoflow chromatography for the sensitive detection of PC-modified peptides from complex proteolytic digests, and the localization of the PC-modification within the peptide backbone. In a first step, proteolytic digests are screened using precursor ion scanning for the marker ions of choline (m/z 104.1) and phosphorylcholine (m/z 184.1) to establish the presence of PC-modified peptides. Potential PC-modified precursors are then subjected to a second analysis using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-triggered product ion spectra for the identification and site localization of the modified peptides. The approach was first established using synthetic PC-modified synthetic peptides and PC-modified model digests. Following the optimization of key parameters, we then successfully applied the method to the detection of PC-peptides in the background of a proteolytic digest of a whole proteome. This methodological invention will greatly facilitate the detection of PC-substituted biomolecules and their structural analysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2014 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Source

Kumar Y.,University College London | Mazurek S.,Justus Liebig University | Mazurek S.,ScheBo Biotech AG | Yang S.,University College London | And 4 more authors.
Tumor Biology

In tumour cells, the tetramer/dimer ratio of the pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 (M2-PK) determines whether glucose carbons are degraded to lactate with production of energy (tetrameric form) or are channelled into synthetic processes (dimeric form). The influence of different tumour microenvironment conditions on the tetramer/dimer ratio of M2-PK and cell doublings were investigated in a non-metastatic and metastatic pancreatic cancer cell line. The metastatic Colo357 cells contained about fourfold more M2-PK protein and about 3.5-fold more dimeric M2-PK than the non-metastatic Panc-1 cells. In Colo357 cells hypoxia, glucose starvation as well as acidification induced an increase of the dimeric form of M2-PK, whereas in Panc-1 cells no effect on M2-PK was observed. Under hypoxia in Colo357 cells, the dimerization and inactivation of M2-PK results in an inhibition of cell proliferation, whereas under glucose starvation and acidification the dimerization of M2-PK allowed further cell doublings. M2-PK expression and the quaternary structure of M2-PK are influenced by the tumour metastatic potential. The quaternary structure of M2-PK may be differently affected by hypoxia, glucose starvation and acidification with severe consequences on cell doublings. © 2010 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM). Source

The invention relates to a test kit for better carrying out a method for detecting biomarkers in human or animal stool, which can serve as an indication of a pathological, particularly a malignant event in the gastrointestinal tract (esophagus, stomach, small bowel, biliary tract, pancreas, and bowel). The invention teaches a novel and more efficient methods, uses and embodiments of a combined rapid test. The combined rapid test cassette used for implementing the test kit and the optimally coordinated reagents thereof contains two lateral flow test strips for the synchronousin the technical meaningdetection of the biomarkers M The test serves as a dual filter for diagnosing probands as part of a colon cancer screening program. The test is very cost-efficient and cuts costs in the health system by the examination at an early stage of colon cancer and the consequences thereof.

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