Borelli I.,University of Turin |
Barberis M.A.,SCDU Genetica Medica |
Spina F.,Science Medical Genetics |
Cavalchini G.C.C.,SCDU Genetica Medica |
And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2013
Lynch syndrome is an autosomal-dominant hereditary condition predisposing to the development of specific cancers, because of germline mutations in the DNA-mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Large genomic deletions represent a significant fraction of germline mutations, particularly among the MSH2 gene, in which they account for 20% of the mutational spectrum. In this study we analyzed 13 Italian families carrying MSH2 exon 8 deletions, 10 of which of ascertained Sardinian origin. The overrepresentation of Sardinians was unexpected, as families from Sardinia account for a small quota of MMR genes mutation tests performed in our laboratory. The hypothesis that such a result is owing to founder effects in Sardinia was tested by breakpoint junctions sequencing and haplotype analyses. Overall, five different exon eight deletions were identified, two of which recurrent in families, all apparently unrelated, of Sardinian origin (one in eight families, one in two families). The c.1277-1180-1386+2226del3516insCATTCTCTTTGAAAA deletion shares the same haplotype between all families and appears so far restricted to the population of South-West Sardinia, showing the typical features of a founder effect. The three non-Sardinian families showed three different breakpoint junctions and haplotypes, suggesting independent mutational events. This work has useful implications in genetic testing for Lynch syndrome. We developed a quick test for each of the identified deletions: this can be particularly useful in families of Sardinian origin, in which MSH2 exon 8 deletions may represent 50% of the overall mutational spectrum of the four MMR genes causing Lynch syndrome. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Castronovo C.,CNR Institute of Molecular Genetics |
Valtorta E.,CNR Institute of Molecular Genetics |
Crippa M.,CNR Institute of Molecular Genetics |
Tedoldi S.,Servizio di Genetica |
And 14 more authors.
Molecular Cytogenetics | Year: 2013
Background: Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMCs) are additional, structurally abnormal chromosomes, generally smaller than chromosome 20 of the same metaphase spread. Due to their small size, they are difficult to characterize by conventional cytogenetics alone. In regard to their clinical effects, sSMCs are a heterogeneous group: in particular, sSMCs containing pericentromeric euchromatin are likely to be associated with abnormal outcomes, although exceptions have been reported. To improve characterization of the genetic content of sSMCs, several approaches might be applied based on different molecular and molecular-cytogenetic assays, e.g., fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH), and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA).To provide a complementary tool for the characterization of sSMCs, we constructed and validated a new, FISH-based, pericentromeric Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clone set that with a high resolution spans the most proximal euchromatic sequences of all human chromosome arms, excluding the acrocentric short arms. Results: By FISH analysis, we assayed 561 pericentromeric BAC probes and excluded 75 that showed a wrong chromosomal localization. The remaining 486 probes were used to establish 43 BAC-based pericentromeric panels. Each panel consists of a core, which with a high resolution covers the most proximal euchromatic ∼0.7 Mb (on average) of each chromosome arm and generally bridges the heterochromatin/euchromatin junction, as well as clones located proximally and distally to the core. The pericentromeric clone set was subsequently validated by the characterization of 19 sSMCs. Using the core probes, we could rapidly distinguish between heterochromatic (1/19) and euchromatic (11/19) sSMCs, and estimate the euchromatic DNA content, which ranged from approximately 0.13 to more than 10 Mb. The characterization was not completed for seven sSMCs due to a lack of information about the covered region in the reference sequence (1/19) or sample insufficiency (6/19). Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that this pericentromeric clone set is useful as an alternative tool for sSMC characterization, primarily in cases of very small SMCs that contain either heterochromatin exclusively or a tiny amount of euchromatic sequence, and also in cases of low-level or cryptic mosaicism. The resulting data will foster knowledge of human proximal euchromatic regions involved in chromosomal imbalances, thereby improving genotype-phenotype correlations. © 2013 Castronovo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Priolo M.,Unita Operativa di Genetica medica |
Grosso E.,SCDU Genetica Medica |
Mammi C.,Unita Operativa di Genetica medica |
Labate C.,Unita Operativa di Genetica medica |
And 4 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2012
The Nuclear Factor I-X (NFIX) is a member of the nuclear factor I (NFI) family proteins, which are implicated as site-specific DNA-binding proteins and is deleted or mutated in a subset of patients with Sotos-like overgrowth syndrome and in patients with Marshall-Smith syndrome. We evaluated an additional patient with clinical features of Sotos-like syndrome by sequencing analysis of the NFIX gene and identified a 21 nucleotide in frame deletion predicting loss of 7 amino acids in the DNA-binding/dimerization domain of the NFIX protein. The deleted residues are all evolutionally conserved amino acids. The present report further confirms that mutations in DNA-binding/dimerization domain cause haploinsufficiency of the NFIX protein and strongly suggests that in individuals with Sotos-like features unrelated to NSD1 changes genetic testing of NFIX should be considered. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Tucci A.,University of Milan |
Ronzoni L.,University of Milan |
Arduino C.,S.C.D.U. Genetica Medica |
Salmin P.,S.C.D.U. Genetica Medica |
And 2 more authors.
BMC Medical Genetics | Year: 2016
Background: Smith Lemli Opitz syndrome (SLOS; OMIM #270400) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the DHCR7 gene. SLOS is characterized by a plethora of abnormalities involving mainly the brain and the genitalia but also the cardiac, skeletal and gastroenteric system, typical dysmorphic facial features, and variable degrees of developmental delay and intellectual disability (ID). SLOS has a broad phenotypic spectrum, ranging from multiple congenital malformation syndrome, to mild developmental delay and minor malformations. A large number of mutations have been described in the DHCR7 gene, with few common mutations accounting for the majority of mutated alleles found in patients and a large number of very rare or even private variants. Due to the wide variety of clinical presentations, diagnosis can be difficult, especially in the milder forms of the disorder. Furthermore, establishing a molecular diagnosis can be complicated by finding variants of unknown clinical significance in such cases. Case presentation: We report a case of SLOS at the mild end of the clinical spectrum, presenting with bilateral pelvis ectasia, mild dysmorphic features and mild intellectual disability. The case is compound heterozygous for a known pathogenic mutation (c.724C > T, p.Arg242Cys) and a mutation that has only been reported once in a Portuguese patient (c.521 T > C, p.Phe174Ser) whose pathogenicity has not been yet assessed. We compared the two patients carrying the p.Phe174Ser variant and concluded that this variant is associated with mild forms of SLOS. Conclusion: We report a patient with a mild case of SLOS, highlighting the importance of recognizing subtle anomalies of the genitourinary system, associated with mild dysmorphic features and mild intellectual disability in establishing the diagnosis of mild forms of SLOS. With this report, we confirm the pathogenicity of the p.Phe174Ser variant and we also provide evidence of its association with mild forms of SLOS. This finding further facilitates the establishment of a genotype-phenotype correlation for SLOS. This helps in counselling for this disorder and in predicting therapeutic responses. © 2016 Tucci et al.