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Seoul, South Korea

Ko Y.C.,SCAP Technology Consulting | Park J.-M.,Chungbuk National University
Palpu Chongi Gisul/Journal of Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry | Year: 2015

Cellulose fibers is one of the most abundant in nature. It has many distinctive features: abundant in nature, biodegradable, non-toxic, eco-friendly, sustainable, easy to fabricate, hydrophilic, and cost-effective. Cellulose fibers, known as pulp, is produced from cellulose-containing materials by the pulping process. As the raw material, wood has been most commonly used while recycled pulp has been also used to some degree. Thus, pulp usually refers to wood pulp. Generally, the pulp and paper industry is regarded as the commodity market where the cost should be much more important than the quality. It also belongs to a mature market where the growth is slow, or even in decline. Accordingly, technological development has been rather stagnant for the industry. Recently, however, the pulp and paper industry has faced very serious challenges. First, due to digital technology, there has been a steady decline in the need for pulp and paper products. The digital industry has continuously replaced printed products such as books, newspapers, and magazines. Second, there has been a trend initiated by developed countries to limit the use of wood as the raw material for the sake of environmental protection. This forces the industry to find a more efficient use of wood pulp as well as finding alternative, non-wood sources. Third, as an individual becomes wealthier and more conscious of health-care, the quality of a product becomes more important than the cost. Thus, a paradigm shift is needed from the cost-conscientious to the quality conscientious. The objective of this article is to review the technologies aimed at engineering cellulose fibers for producing high-value added paper products.

Ko Y.C.,SCAP Technology Consulting | Park J.-M.,Chungbuk National University | Shin S.-J.,Chungbuk National University
Palpu Chongi Gisul/Journal of Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry | Year: 2015

Until Mandelbrot introduced the concept of fractal geometry and fractal dimension in early 1970s, it has been generally considered that the geometry of nature should be too complex and irregular to describe analytically or mathematically. Here fractal dimension indicates a non-integer number such as 0.5, 1.5, or 2.5 instead of only integers used in the traditional Euclidean geometry, i.e., 0 for point, 1 for line, 2 for area, and 3 for volume. Since his pioneering work on fractal geometry, the geometry of nature has been found fractal. Mandelbrot introduced the concept of fractal geometry. For example, fractal geometry has been found in mountains, coastlines, clouds, lightning, earthquakes, turbulence, trees and plants. Even human organs are found to be fractal. This suggests that the fractal geometry should be the law for Nature rather than the exception. Fractal geometry has a hierarchical structure consisting of the elements having the same shape, but the different sizes from the largest to the smallest. Thus, fractal geometry can be characterized by the similarity and hierarchical structure. A process requires driving energy to proceed. Otherwise, the process would stop. A hierarchical structure is considered ideal to generate such driving force. This explains why natural process or phenomena such as lightning, thunderstorm, earth quakes, and turbulence has fractal geometry. It would not be surprising to find that even the human organs such as the brain, the lung, and the circulatory system have fractal geometry. Until now, a normal frequency distribution (or Gaussian frequency distribution) has been commonly used to describe frequencies of an object. However, a log-normal frequency distribution has been most frequently found in natural phenomena and chemical processes such as corrosion and coagulation. It can be mathematically shown that if an object has a log-normal frequency distribution, it has fractal geometry. In other words, these two go hand in hand. Lastly, applying fractal principles is discussed, focusing on pulp and paper industry. The principles should be applicable to characterizing surface roughness, particle size distributions, and formation. They should be also applicable to wet-end chemistry for ideal mixing, felt and fabric design for papermaking process, dewatering, drying, creping, and post-converting such as laminating, embossing, and printing.

Ko Y.C.,SCAP Technology Consulting | Park J.-M.,Chungbuk National University | Moon B.-G.,Korea Conformity Laboratories
Palpu Chongi Gisul/Journal of Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry | Year: 2015

Softness is considered one of the most important attributes of hygiene paper such as tissue and towel. Being subjective in nature, however, softness attribute has been generally believed to be impossible to evaluate using objective methods. Hallmark in his pioneering work proposed that tissue subjective softness should be mainly consisted of the bulk softness component and surface softness component. The bulk softness component can be determined by tensile stiffness; the surface softness component by surface tester. The surface friction turns out far more important than the surface roughness in determining the surface softness component. It cannot be too much emphasized that both results of the tensile stiffness and the surface friction should depend on measuring conditions such as an instrument used, sample sizes (e.g., basis weight, length, and width) and operating conditions of the instrument (e.g., gauge length, cross-head speed, size of stylus, and its scanning speed). This indicates that a direct comparison of the test results would be impossible or misleading unless they have been tested under the identical conditions. This may explain why the standard objective test method for tissue softness has not been available at present.

Ko Y.C.,SCAP Technology Consulting | Park J.-M.,SCAP Technology Consulting | Park J.-M.,Chungbuk National University
Palpu Chongi Gisul/Journal of Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry | Year: 2016

In the consumer products industry, it has been highly desirable to develop objective test methods to replace subjective evaluation methods. In developing an objective test method, subjective evaluation data should be on a linear scale. According to Thurstone's theory of comparative judgment, a%-preference from a paired-comparison test can be converted to a linear-scale value. The required number (N) of paired-comparison tests increases dramatically as the number of products increases. This problem should be solved by classifying the total products into several subgroups consisting of 3 - 4 products in each group. By doing so, it can not only significantly reduce the number of required paired-comparison tests, but it can also obtain more reliable, reproducible data.

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