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Goel A.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Goel A.,Uttrakhand Technical University | Gaur V.S.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Arora S.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | And 2 more authors.
OMICS A Journal of Integrative Biology | Year: 2012

The calcium (Ca2+) transporters, like Ca2+ channels, Ca2+ ATPases, and Ca2+ exchangers, are instrumental for signaling and transport. However, the mechanism by which they orchestrate the accumulation of Ca2+ in grain filling has not yet been investigated. Hence the present study was designed to identify the potential calcium transporter genes that may be responsible for the spatial accumulation of calcium during grain filling. In silico expression analyses were performed to identify Ca2+ transporters that predominantly express during the different developmental stages of Oryza sativa. A total of 13 unique calcium transporters (7 from massively parallel signature sequencing [MPSS] data analysis, and 9 from microarray analysis) were identified. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed differential expression of the transporters across tissues, and principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited their seed-specific distinctive expression profile. Interestingly, Ca2+ exchanger genes are highly expressed in the initial stages, whereas some Ca2+ ATPase genes are highly expressed throughout seed development. Furthermore, analysis of the cis-elements located in the promoter region of the subset of 13 genes suggested that Dof proteins play essential roles in regulating the expression of Ca 2+ transporter genes during rice seed development. Based on these results, we developed a hypothetical model explaining the transport and tissue specific distribution of calcium in developing cereal seeds. The model may be extrapolated to understand the mechanism behind the exceptionally high level of calcium accumulation seen in grains like finger millet. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Goel A.,University of the Humanities | Goel A.,Uttrakhand Technical University | Taj G.,University of the Humanities | Pandey D.,University of the Humanities | And 2 more authors.
Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics | Year: 2011

The mechanism of calcium uptake, translocation and accumulation in Poaceae has not yet been fully understood. To address this issue, we conducted genome-wide comparative in silico analysis of the calcium (Ca 2+) transporter gene family of two crop species, rice and sorghum. Gene annotation, identification of upstream cis-acting elements, phylogenetic tree construction and syntenic mapping of the gene family were performed using several bioinformatics tools. A total of 31 Ca 2+ transporters, distributed on 9 out of 12 chromosomes, were predicted from rice genome, while 28 Ca 2+ transporters predicted from sorghum are distributed on all the chromosomes except chromosome 10 (Chr 10). Interestingly, most of the genes on Chr 1 and Chr 3 show an inverse syntenic relationship between rice and sorghum. Multiple sequence alignment and motif analysis of these transporter proteins revealed high conservation between the two species. Phylogenetic tree could very well identify the subclasses of channels, ATPases and exchangers among the gene family. The in silico cis-regulatory element analysis suggested diverse functions associated with light, stress and hormone responsiveness as well as endosperm- and meristem-specific gene expression. Further experiments are warranted to validate the in silico analysis of the predicted transporter gene family and elucidate the functions of Ca 2+ transporters in various biological processes. © 2011 Beijing Genomics Institute. Source

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