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Albuquerque, NM, United States

Krishtab M.,Catholic University of Leuven | Krishtab M.,IMEC | Vanstreels K.,IMEC | Savage T.,SBA Materials | And 4 more authors.
Microelectronic Engineering | Year: 2015

In this study cohesion strength in low-k dielectric films was enhanced by tuning the pore structure. The correlation between the average size of pores in ultra-low-k materials and cohesion energy was demonstrated by performing a 4-point bending test on multi-layer structures including TaN/Ta metal barrier. Spin-on organosilica films prepared with different templating surfactants were used to alleviate porosity- pore size coupling, which revealed the particular role of pore size with respect to material toughness. The paper also discusses aspects of material design at precursor level. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Hobaika A.B.D.S.,SBA Materials | Pires K.C.D.C.,Servico de Anestesiologia da Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte | Fernandes V.B.S.A.,CET SBA Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte
Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia | Year: 2010

Background and objectives: The rate of mortality during the surgical separation of conjoined twins in the neonatal period is 50% and can reach up to 75% if it occurs in emergency situations. The planning of the surgical separation procedure is detailed and involves imaging assessment, evaluation of cross-circulation and even other surgical preparation procedures, such as skin expansion. Case Report: Eleven-day-old female omphalopagus conjoined twins underwent emergency surgical separation due to the death of one twin caused by sepsis associated to cardiopathy. The liver was shared by the twins and was separated. The surviving twin died six days later. Conclusions: Surgical separation of conjoined twins in the neonatal period must be avoided due to the patients' organic system immaturity. However, emergency situations such as the one described herein can require the procedure to be carried out. Source


Yeap K.-B.,Fraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing | Kopycinska-Mueller M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing | Kopycinska-Mueller M.,TU Dresden | Chen L.,Queensland University of Technology | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Materials Research | Year: 2013

Optimization of the pore topology in organosilicate glass (OSG) is crucial in the development of dielectrics with an extremely low k-value and a relatively high Young's modulus. In this paper, a finite-element modeling strategy is applied to develop a general understanding of the relationship between porosity, pore topology, and elastic modulus for the porous OSG thin films. This relationship in combination with the experimental elastic modulus data from nanoindentation (NI) studies is used to predict the pore structure of various OSG films. In addition, positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements are performed to determine the threshold porosity for the transition from nonoverlapping to overlapping porous structure. A similar threshold value is determined based on the finite-element modeling and experimental NI data. © 2013 Materials Research Society. Source


Kopycinska-Muller M.,TU Dresden | Kopycinska-Muller M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing | Yeap K.-B.,Fraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing | Mahajan S.,SBA Materials | And 6 more authors.
Nanotechnology | Year: 2013

We have used the atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) method to determine the indentation modulus of nanoporous thin-film materials with ultralow values of dielectric permittivity (dielectric constant k < 2.4). The AFAM method is based on the contact mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and as such is able to characterize materials with high spatial resolution. The tested material was porous organosilicate glass with nominal porosity ranging from 27% to 40%. The values obtained for the indentation modulus varied from 4 to 7 GPa depending on the pore concentration. The values obtained for the indentation modulus by use of the AFAM method were in very good agreement with those determined by nanoindentation. In addition, a part of the AFAM results obtained for the sample with the highest porosity content showed dependence of the effective indentation modulus on the applied load. Preliminary data analysis suggests that the stress rate is the critical factor in triggering this particular mechanical response of the porous material. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


A sol composition for producing a porous low-k dielectric material is provided. The composition can include at least one silicate ester, a polar solvent, water, an acid catalyst for silicate ester hydrolysis, an amphiphilic block copolymer surfactant, and a nonmetallic catalyst that reduces dielectric constant in the produced material. The composition can further include a metallic ion at a lower parts-per-million concentration than the nonmetallic catalyst, and/or the composition can further include a cosolvent. A method of preparing a thin film on a substrate using the sol composition is also provided.

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