San Francisco, CA, United States

Saybrook University
San Francisco, CA, United States

Saybrook University is an educational institution founded in 1971. It offers postgraduate education with a focus on humanistic psychology. It features low residency, master's and doctoral degrees and professional certification programs. The university is accredited by the Senior Colleges and Universities Commission of the Western Association of Schools and Colleges . As of 2014 the university served 600 students. Wikipedia.

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Schneider K.J.,Saybrook University | Langle A.,International Society for Logotherapy and Existential Analysis
Psychotherapy | Year: 2012

This special section highlights the renewal of humanism in psychotherapy. For the purposes of this special section, humanism is defined as a philosophical perspective whose subject matter is the whole human being. In psychotherapy, humanism places special emphasis on the personal, interpersonal, and contextual dimensions of therapy and on clients' reflections on their relationship with self, others, and the larger psychosocial world. The contributors to this special section-Bruce Wampold, David Elkins, Steven Hayes, Robert Stolorow, Jurgen Kriz, Lillian Comas-Diaz, and the authors of this introduction-are each leaders in their respective therapeutic specialties: research and training, cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychoanalytic therapy, European therapy, and multicultural therapy. In the manner of a "roundtable," each contributor was asked to provide a short article on the renewal of humanism in his or her respective specialty followed by brief comments on the initial round of articles. The conclusion of these reflections is that the renewal of humanism is a viable and growing phenomenon among the leading specialty areas of psychotherapy. The corollary conclusion is that although many theoretical and practical questions remain, humanism is (1) a foundational element of therapeutic effectiveness; (2) a pivotal (and needed) dimension of therapeutic training; and (3) a critical contributor to societal well-being. © 2012 American Psychological Association.

This article provides an overview of the growing pains associated with paving a new scientific frontier, and challenges researchers have faced in the past, and continue to face in the field of near-death experiences. Some of the key challenges surround researching a subjective experience in an objective way, disclosure barriers from NDErs, research issues that may arise, in addition to stigmatization that may be associated with being a NDE researcher from mainstream science and educational institutions.

Elliott R.,University of Strathclyde | Bohart A.C.,Saybrook University | Watson J.C.,University of Toronto | Greenberg L.S.,University of York
Psychotherapy | Year: 2011

After defining empathy, discussing its measurement, and offering an example of empathy in practice, we present the results of an updated meta-analysis of the relation between empathy and psychotherapy outcome. Results indicated that empathy is a moderately strong predictor of therapy outcome: mean weighted r = .31 (p < .001; 95% confidence interval: .28-34), for 59 independent samples and 3599 clients. Although the empathy-outcome relation held equally for different theoretical orientations, there was considerable nonrandom variability. Client and observer perceptions of therapist empathy predicted outcomes better than therapist perceptions of empathic accuracy measures, and the relation was strongest for less experienced therapists. We conclude with practice recommendations, including endorsing the different forms that empathy may take in therapy. © 2011 American Psychological Association.

Schneider K.J.,Saybrook University | Schneider K.J.,Columbia University
Journal of Psychotherapy Integration | Year: 2016

This article provides an overview and case application of the existential-integrative (EI) approach to psychotherapy. I developed the EI approach based on the existentialhumanistic work of Rollo May and James Bugental. In the first section of the article, the EI approach is introduced and described with a particular focus on its central and evidence-based principles. In the second section of the article, a therapeutic case is provided to illustrate the principles of the EI approach. In the final section of the article a discussion of the findings is interwoven with a call for greater attention to EI practices among integrative theorists, researchers, and practitioners. It is concluded that for their optimization, the existential bases of all bona fide therapies may be foundational. © 2016 American Psychological Association.

Baker A.C.,Saybrook University
Sexual and Relationship Therapy | Year: 2016

This study posed to participants the phenomenological question: “Can you describe, in detail, a specific time when you had a spiritual experience while engaging in a BDSM scene?” It was the goal of the researcher to understand the psychological meanings of spiritual experiences, occurring either spontaneously or through deliberate induction, had by participants who were actively engaged in BDSM scenes at the time of the experience and to capture a limited view of this lived experience. A descriptive phenomenological psychological approach was used to explicate the key psychological constituents of this phenomenon as it was lived. The key constituents discovered in this research were (1) ordeal, (2) surrender, (3) visionary experience, (4) embodied sense of an energetic force, (5) sense of spiritual presence (Other), (6) self-surrendered/transcended state of consciousness, and (7) deeply personal and lasting transformation. Clinicians could possibly use the context of this research to better understand clients who are positively engaged in BDSM in the same way that one might view the religious and spiritual practices of a client. © 2016 College of Sexual and Relationship Therapists

Fracasso C.,Saybrook University | Friedman H.,Saybrook University
NeuroQuantology | Year: 2011

Claims from those having near-death experiences (NDEs), as well as those sympathetic to such claims, challenge the prevailing assumption that consciousness is dependent on a functioning brain. Extant theories, both neurobiological and psychosocial, that attempt to explain NDEs are examined and found unable to adequately account for the full range of NDE reports, especially electromagnetic after-effects and out-of-body experiences with veridical perception. As a result, many leading NDE researchers have proposed that a new model is needed to explain how consciousness could possibly exist independently of the brain, mainly relying on theories from quantum physics. Our paper critically evaluates a range of extant neurobiological and psychosocial theories of NDEs, as well as examines theories that might offer more promise in fully explaining NDEs, especially those using insights derived from quantum physics. We conclude that the "hard problem" of consciousness is not yet solved, but that NDEs provide an important avenue for exploring the relationship between consciousness and brain, as well as possibly understanding a disembodied concept of consciousness.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 14.00K | Year: 2011

This project would support the dissertation research of graduate student Enrico J. Wensing to develop the Global Sustainability Inventory (GSI) an assessment instrument to help characterize community leaders for sustainability (CLS). This is a social psychology project that proposes to identify key psychological and social factors that lead to the development and efficacy of community leaders for sustainability, which are known by a number of labels such as cultural creatives, positive deviants, social entrepreneurs, sustainability champions, international social workers, and knowledge or boundary managers; these are the people that actively participate in movements for positive social change within and between communities and seek to help move global societies toward a sustainable future. They make up a very small but effective percentage of the total population.

Utilizing various field sites, PhD Candidate Enrico J. Wensing will research and develop the GSI across a few of the diverse sociocultural communities that are faced with some of the various challenges in a transition toward sustainability and sustainable development. By implementing cross-cultural collaboration to research the assessment instrument, this project proposes to develop the GSI so that it can be administered via the web and ultimately assist the development of community leadership for sustainability across the world.

Saybrook University | Date: 2016-12-08

Downloadable electronic publications in the nature of magazines in the field of curriculum at the university level.

Saybrook University | Date: 2016-12-08

Publications, namely, magazines in the fields of curriculum at the university level.

News Article | January 27, 2016

Every day, office workers everywhere find themselves trapped in cross-cubicle conversations about their co-worker's “crazy accurate” and “totally psychic” dream. Listening to stories about other people's dreams is usually pretty boring, but still, most of us are pretty curious about the idea of dreams that predict the future. The concept of precognitive dreams—dreams about events or experiences that haven’t yet occurred, but later take place in reality—goes against our most basic understanding of time and relativity. If time is linear, and if we learn, see and feel through experience, then precognitive dreams simply can’t be legit. Yet we generally place a lot of importance on our dreams and often treat the content and messages in our dreams as more credible than similar waking thoughts. And this tendency applies to precognitive dreams too, which might explain why we all get a little buzz from personal experiences of déjà vu, why "Medium" ran for seven seasons and why millions follow the precognitive or divine dreams of Solomon, Joseph and Muhammad. But is it really possible to accurately dream about the future? I asked Dr. Stanley Krippner, professor of psychology at Saybrook University. Dr. Krippner’s research and experimentation of parapsychology, precognitive dreaming, and shamanism spans more than 40 years and involves the Grateful Dead. He believes we are capable of precognitive dreams, and says his research backs that up. He walked me through one of his most significant laboratory studies on precognitive dreaming. Each night, the subject dreamer would go through an ordinary night of dreaming, with an intent to dream about an experience he would have the following morning. The dreamer was woken 4-5 times throughout the night to relay his dreams to an experimenter. The following mornings, experimenters randomly selected an experience from a number of prearranged options, and the dreamer was subjected to that experience. Dr. Krippner said there was no way for the participants to know what experience they would encounter before it was selected and administered. Dr. Krippner gives an example of a participant who one night had several dreams about birds: birds in the air, birds in a marsh, birds flying overhead, birds everywhere basically. The following morning, the dreamer was subjected to one of the randomly-selected experiences. “The experience was to have him sit with earphones on,” Dr. Krippner said. “And what was played? Bird calls. He was also played a video. And what was played? Pictures of birds.” At the end of the eight-night experiment, outside judges were called in to consider the participants’ dreams against the experiences they were subjected to, and determine whether the dreams matched the next day’s experience. Dr. Krippner says for each participant, the judges found a match between at least one dream and the seceding experience, on most nights of the experiment. “If we were talking about any other phenomenon, you’d say this phenomenon is pretty well established,” Dr. Patrick McNamara, associate professor of neurology at Boston University School of Medicine and professor of psychology at Northcentral University, said about the results from Dr. Krippner’s experiments. “But given that there is no known physical mechanism for what these studies seem to be showing, scientists are still saying, ‘Well we don’t have a good explanation for this so we’re very suspect about these experiments.’” Skepticism in the field of precognitive dreaming is so strong that Dr. Krippner even called in magicians to inspect his laboratory and methodology to see whether there’s any room for sleight of hand or falsification in his experiments. If we accept—for the sake of curiosity—that precognitive dreams do happen, what’s the explanation? The short answer is: nobody knows. What we do know is that the unconscious mind is definitely capable of deep revelations during REM sleep. Back in 1900, Sigmund Freud reckoned that we give more credence to what happens in our dreams because our unconscious thoughts are apparently immune from the outside influences of the waking world. Sleep studies have since echoed that idea, showing that during REM, the brain is oblivious to the restraints of consciousness and can indulge in a kind of free-flow brainstorming. A mind in REM can churn out some genius ideas, giving us the kind of clarity that settles every-day dilemmas and unearths to some pretty amazing discoveries, including (or so the story goes) Einstein's revelations about the theory of relativity. This leads to one theory of explanation for precognitive dreams. Perhaps during the brain’s unbridled state in REM, it can also identify and process some kind of “signals” that we don’t consciously acknowledge, and these signals help inform our understanding and awareness of the future. As for where these signals come from, the answer might lie in quantum entanglement, the idea that two distinct particles or points in time can interact as if connected to one another, despite being spatially separated. Dr. Krippner elaborated on how quantum physics could explain precognitive dreaming. “Quantum events happen on a different time scale to what most people live in and experience in the West,” he explained. “We have this understanding of time that is: ‘past, present, future.’ But quantum physics gives you a different concept of time.” Dr. Krippner says the same concepts are present in a lot of indigenous cultures that he’s studied as part of his research in to precognitive dreaming and shamanism. “Many indigenous people see time going in a circle; it goes around and around and it’s a spiral,” Dr. Krippner said. “Then you also have the indigenous North American point of view that people lived in a ‘long body’; they do not end where their skin ends. A person’s long body projects and involves other people and other parts of nature, so everything is happening all at once. For them it’s no surprise that you can dream about the future.” Apparently this acceptance that time is not linear makes people in indigenous societies more receptive to precognitive dreams, and Dr. Krippner has found precognitive dreaming is more common and more valued in indigenous cultures than Eurocentric ones. Dr. McNamara gave other examples that he thinks suggests there’s something a little psychic going on when we sleep. “Take dreams between twins,” he said. “We now have very well documented cases where one twin dreams that something is going to happen to the other twin and it does in fact happen. We also have very well documented cases of twins dreaming very similar dreams and knowing that they just dreamed a similar dream and being able to finish the dream of the other person." “The fact that these dreams occur between biological relatives or between people with deep emotional bonds strengthens the case for the fact that something new is happening, some real cognitive or biological process is happening in these cases that is currently unknown and unchartered by science," he added. But there are some pretty convincing explanations that serve to debunk the concept of precognitive dreams. According to Dr. Robert Todd Carroll, a writer and academic who studies the psychology of belief, subconscious influence is largely responsible for dreams that seem precognitive. Take for example, one of the most famous precognitive dreams in history. In 1865, then-President Abraham Lincoln had a vivid dream in which he walked through the White House amid sounds of grieving. He reached the East Room where he saw a casket guarded by soldiers and was told the president had been assassinated. In the following days, Lincoln shared his dream with his wife and a few close friends; 13 days after the dream, he was killed. In Lincoln’s case, we can infer a few subconscious influences: first of all, as president during the Civil War, his personal security was probably a necessary preoccupation. On top of that, Lincoln had been the subject of an assassination attempt less than a year before. Dr. Carroll also says probability and coincidence can help explain dreams that seem to predict the future. “There are billions of dreams a night on this planet and it would be pretty odd if none of them corresponded in vague or precise ways to actual events past, present or future,” he writes. Indigenous wisdom and psychological rationale aside, the hunt for a scientific explanation to precognitive dreaming is on. Despite our curiosity in dreams, the study of dreams hasn’t been a priority in modern science. But that’s changing with the advent of neuroimaging technology that allows scientists to observe the dreaming brain as well as standardized tests for dream content. Accessible technology is also helping the cause, with dream recording apps like Dream:ON giving scientists access to a huge cross-cultural database of dreams. Dr. Krippner, who has travelled the world and spent time with indigenous cultures in Asia, Africa, North America, South America, and Australia for his dream studies, is optimistic about the future of precognitive dream studies. “There are some things that happen in the world that are anomalies that we can’t explain with the Western point of view,” he told me. “It might be that all these studies on precognitive dreams are ahead of their time and we might have to wait 50-100 years before we understand them.” Fittingly, he thinks the answers of the future might lie in the past: “I think findings on precognitive dreams are going to be in accord with what indigenous people believe about time.”

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