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Luschen E.,Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics | Gorne S.,Saxon State office for Environment | von Hartmann H.,Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics | Thomas R.,Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics | Schulz R.,Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics
Geophysical Prospecting | Year: 2015

A 3D seismic survey was recorded in 2012 to explore a petrothermal reservoir in a late-Variscan granitic pluton within the Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains) in Saxony, Germany. The main objective was to test this area in the context of the Enhanced Geothermal System concept and to test the 3D seismic technique as an exploration tool. The intention and challenge are to image and characterize potentially permeable fracture zones at target depths of 5-6 km, with temperatures above 150 °C. Unconventional methods were applied for field acquisition and data processing. The vibroseis technique was used in the core experiment, accompanied by a special explosive seismic experiment. Field acquisition was characterized by severe noise conditions and a highly irregular layout. These conditions required extensive preprocessing and data conditioning. The imaging started with conventional Common Midpoint processing for quality control and for a first reference. Better images were obtained by Common Reflection Surface processing with subsequent post-stack time migration. Prestack time migration was also used for comparison. Outstanding results were obtained by the 'operator-oriented' version of the Common Reflection Surface technique. A rich repertoire of structures within the granite pluton was imaged, including steeply dipping fault zones and conjugate faults. Images and indications of fracture and crack porosity of a prominent fault zone provide the background to define an optimum drill path. This is considered as the next stage for a possible geothermal plant, if a decision is taken to drill a research well in the future. The 3D seismic reflection technique was shown to be an indispensable tool for geothermal exploration, even in crystalline basement rocks. © 2015 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

Lorenz M.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Lorenz M.,Saxon State office for Environment | Furst C.,University of Bonn | Thiel E.,Saxon State office for Environment
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2013

Regarding increasing pressures by global societal and climate change, the assessment of the impact of land use and land management practices on land degradation and the related decrease in sustainable provision of ecosystem services gains increasing interest. Existing approaches to assess agricultural practices focus on the assessment of single crops or statistical data because spatially explicit information on practically applied crop rotations is mostly not available. This provokes considerable uncertainties incrop production models as regional specifics have to be neglected or cannot be considered in an appropriate way.In a case study in Saxony, we developed an approach to (i) derive representative regional crop rotations by combining different data sources and expert knowledge. This includes the integration of innovative crop sequences related to bio-energy production or organic farming and different soil tillage, soil management and soil protection techniques.Furthermore, (ii) we developed a regionalization approach for transferring crop rotations and related soil management strategies on the basis of statistical data and spatially explicit data taken from so called field blocks. These field blocks are the smallest spatial entity for which agricultural practices must be reported to apply for agricultural funding within the frame of the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) program. The information was finally integrated into the spatial decision support tool GISCAME to assess and visualize in spatially explicit manner the impact of alternative agricultural land use strategies on soil erosion risk and ecosystem services provision. Objective of this paper is to present the approach how to create spatially explicit information on agricultural management practices for a study area around Dresden, the capital of the German Federal State Saxony. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Winkelmann T.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Ilczuk A.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Wartenberg S.,Saxon State office for Environment
Propagation of Ornamental Plants | Year: 2010

The regeneration of Cyclamen persicum through somatic embryogenesis (SE) has been described by several groups for a wide spectrum of genotypes. Here, we studied this regeneration system for the first time with 30 genotypes which are valued as cut flowers. The aim of this study was to analyse the efficiency of the micropropagation through SE, to investigate the genetic fidelity and performance of the regenerants and to estimate production costs of young plants. The genotype significantly influenced the frequency of callus induction that ranged from 8 to 80% and also the frequency of calluses with differentiation of somatic embryos that ranged from 0 to 92%. Only three of the 30 genotypes were not able to regenerate somatic embryos, while plants were obtained from the remaining 27 genotypes. In total, 2,783 regenerants were transferred to the greenhouse, 2,003 (72%) of which could be acclimatized. Some genotypes were extremely uniform in terms of flower colour and flower shapes, whereas in others somaclonal variation was detected. Estimation of micropropagation cost was 2-3 € per acclimatized young plant at our research facility. If genotypes with high regeneration efficiencies are selected, plant production costs could be reduced to 0.56-0.80 € or even more.

Pfeifer S.,Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research | Birmili W.,Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research | Schladitz A.,Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research | Schladitz A.,Saxon State office for Environment | And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques | Year: 2014

Multiple-charge inversion is an essential procedure to convert the raw mobility distributions recorded by mobility particle size spectrometers, such as the DMPS or SMPS (differential or scanning mobility particle sizers), into true particle number size distributions. In this work, we present a fast and easy-to-implement multiple-charge inversion algorithm with sufficient precision for atmospheric conditions, but extended functionality. The algorithm can incorporate size distribution information from sensors that measure beyond the upper sizing limit of the mobility spectrometer, such as an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) or an optical particle counter (OPC). This feature can considerably improve the multiple-charge inversion result in the upper size range of the mobility spectrometer, for example, when substantial numbers of coarse particles are present. The program also yields a continuous size distribution from both sensors as an output. The algorithm is able to calculate the propagation of measurement errors, such as those based on counting statistics, into on the final particle number size distribution. As an additional aspect, the algorithm can perform all inversion steps under the assumption of non-spherical particle shape, including constant or size-dependent shape factors. © Author(s) 2014.

PubMed | Saxon State office for Environment and University of Twente
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2016

Visible and near infrared reflectance (VNIR; 350-2500nm) spectroscopy has greatly been used in soils, especially for studying variability in spectrally active soil components (e.g., organic carbon, clays, and Fe/Al oxides) based on their diagnostic spectral features. In recent years, this technique has also been applied to assess soil metallic ions. In this research, the feasibility of VNIR spectroscopy for determination of soil metals was investigated with two soil data sets: (i) artificially metal-spiked and (ii) in situ metal-contaminated soils. Results showed that reflectance spectra of neither metal-spiked soils with Cd, As, and Pb even at their higher concentrations of 20, 900, and 1200mgkg(-1), respectively, nor in situ metal-contaminated soils (with concentrations of 30mg Cd, 3019mg As, and 5725mgPbkg(-1) soil) showed any recognized absorption peaks that correspond to soil metal concentrations. We observed variations in reflectance intensity for in situ metal-contaminated soils only, showing higher reflectance across the entire spectrum for strongly and lower for less metal-contaminated soils. A significant correlation was found between surface soil metals concentrations and continuum removed spectra, while soil metals were also found significantly associated with soil organic matter and total Fe. A partial least square regression with cross-validation approach produced an acceptable prediction of metals (R (2)=0.58-0.94) for both soil data sets, metal-spiked and in situ metal-contaminated soils. However, high values of root mean square error ruled out practical application of the achieved prediction models.

Spanhoff B.,Saxon State office for Environment
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

Hydropower plays an important role as the main renewable source of energy generation with an installed capacity of 990 GW in 2012 worldwide contributing to climate protection. However, the main sources of electricity generation are large dams contributing to more than 90% of electricity generated from hydropower. In Saxony (ca. 300 hydropower plants with an installed capacity of 88 MW), comparable to most of the other German federal states (Bundesländer, with ca. 7.600 hydropower plants and an installed capacity of ca. 4 GW in total) and industrial nations worldwide the developmental potential for increasing electricity generation by hydropower is almost exploited. Future prospects for development of large hydropower and pump-storage hydropower plants are generally more positive in some countries as the need for storage of surplus electricity generation will increase. Small hydropower might be of increasing interest in developing countries if locations for hydropower that are economical to develop and that can be exploited with respect to environmental protection will be available. Developmental potential for increasing hydropower in Saxony will be mainly the improvement of technical efficiency (refurbishment) of existing hydropower plants and to a much lesser extent the use of existing non-hydropower low head dams that must be not necessarily removed to achieve the environmental objectives for the particular streams according to the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Nevertheless, statutory requirements for environmental protection especially for migratory fish and for improvement of stream ecosystem functions will restrict the future development of hydropower in Germany as well as in most countries of the European Union. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Meyer E.,Saxon State office for Environment
Landtechnik | Year: 2016

During 12 consecutive test runs, 1 814 intact male, castrated male and female fattening pigs were reared at four differently designed tube feeders. The tube feeders used differed in the number of eating places, in feed consistency, and the mechanism for food ejection. A shallow trough and easy food ejection combined with a design where the food and water bowl are not too strictly separated led to significantly better growth performance of the castrates in the first half of the fattening period. More important for sows and boars is a perfect balance of food consistency or quantity of feed and food hygiene in the trough. High competition by low feed ejection with the help of a bell mechanism also led to better feed utilization by lower feed losses. This feeder design principle led to higher animal losses, probably due to stress. Growth performance and animal welfare are less influenced by the animal-feeding place ratio than by structural design and the function of the tube feeders. © 2016 by the author.

Gorne S.,Saxon State office for Environment | Krentz O.,Saxon State office for Environment
Proceedings of IAMG 2015 - 17th Annual Conference of the International Association for Mathematical Geosciences | Year: 2015

Based on all available data a detailed three dimensional geological model was created within the binational TransGeoTherm project. Some problems and challenges occurred during the proceb of data preparation and modelling. Mostly a lack of interoperability of input data and data structures caused inhomogeneity in the intermediate results. With help of a 3D database approach the final data could be stored consistently and made available for further projects. The derived information (3D model and geothermal maps) is ibued via a public web portal.

Meyer E.,Saxon State office for Environment
Landtechnik | Year: 2015

Required farrowing crate measurements were assessed for 128 sows based on their physical development. The sows had an average parity of over 2.5 and were weighed and measured shortly before farrowing. Age-related relative bodyweight development (+47%) is always much greater than development of body measurements (+10 to 18%). From an absolute, and from a relative point of view, maturing sows grow more in length and height than in width. Also, the measured variation of body width is less than that for the other body measurements. While the statutory 200 cm farrowing crate length and 65 cm width tends to leave too much interior space for gilts, leading to possible injuries and pen cleanliness problems, the statutory requirement of 200 cm length and 70 cm width for older, mature, sows tends to be too limited. Moreover, not taken account of in such cases is additional space requirement for the dynamics of body movement (+10% to 14%). When building new housing for modern sows with their genetic potential for larger frames, farrowing crate widths of 80 cm are required for the larger sows and at least a single alternative width, or preferably a choice of two widths (70 and 60 cm), for the smaller or younger sows. © 2015 by the author.

Schwarzak S.,TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Schwarzak S.,Saxon State office for Environment | Hansel S.,TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Matschullat J.,TU Bergakademie Freiberg
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2015

Changes in frequency, duration and/or intensity of extreme precipitation events, such as heavy precipitation or drought, profoundly impact both society and the natural environment. Regional climate models are valuable tools to assess any future progress of such events, and to complement the development of regional and local adaptation and mitigation strategies - here for the model region Dresden within the REGKLAM project. Multi-model approaches may alleviate some of the problems related to uncertainties of projected changes. The bandwidth of future climate conditions in Central Eastern Germany has been estimated, using 12 regional climate projections in daily resolution as simulated within the EU-project ENSEMBLES (emission scenario A1B). Validation of the model runs against an observation data set displayed significant difficulties of the models to describe the regional precipitation characteristics. Shortcomings are particularly obvious in realistically simulating dry period characteristics, likely due to an overestimation of precipitation totals. Most models agree in the projection of more frequent and longer-lasting drought events during summer, while wet phase frequency and persistence is projected to increase in winter. Extreme precipitation events (99th percentile) are likely to increase by the end of the 21st century in most seasons - even in summer, despite projected decreasing average precipitation. The suggested display of all individual model results allows comparing the characteristics and the trend behaviour of the individual regional climate projections. This supports selecting the suitable model(s) for specific impact modelling demands. © 2014 Royal Meteorological Society.

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