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Bazwinsky-Wutschke I.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Muhlbauer E.,Saxon Academy of science Leipzig | Albrecht E.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Peschke E.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Journal of Pineal Research | Year: 2014

The pineal secretory product melatonin exerts its influence on the insulin secretion of pancreatic islets by different signaling pathways. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of melatonin on calcium-signaling components under different conditions. In a transfected INS-1 cell line overexpressing the human MT2 receptor (hMT2-INS-1), melatonin treatment induced even stronger depressive effects on calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase 2d and IV (Camk2d, CamkIV) transcripts during 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) treatment than in normal INS-1 cells, indicating a crucial influence of melatonin receptor density on transcript-level regulation. In addition, melatonin induced a significant downregulation of calmodulin (Calm1) in IBMX-treated hMT2-INS-1 cells. Long-term administration of melatonin alone reduced CamkIV transcript levels in INS-1 cells; however, transcript levels of Camk2d remained unchanged. The release of insulin was diminished under long-term melatonin treatment. The impact of melatonin also involved reductions in CAMK2D protein during IBMX or forskolin treatments in INS-1 cells, as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indicating a functional significance of transcriptional changes in pancreatic islets. Furthermore, analysis of melatonin receptor knockout mice showed that the transcript levels of Camk2d, CamkIV, and Calm1 were differentially influenced according to the melatonin receptor subtype deleted. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that melatonin has different impacts on the regulation of Calm1 and Camk. These calcium-signaling components are known as participants in the calcium/calmodulin pathway, which plays an important functional role in the modulation of the β-cell signaling pathways leading to insulin secretion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Peschke E.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Muhlbauer E.,Saxon Academy of science Leipzig
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Glucose triggers insulin secretion of the pancreatic β-cells. The pineal hormone melatonin interferes in this process by inhibiting secretion and transmitting circadian timing information to the islets. Circadian insulin secretion is adapted to day/night changes through melatonin-dependent synchronization. In rats and mice, melatonin levels are high during the dark period, which is their active feeding period, while, in humans, melatonin levels are high during the overnight fasting and sleeping period. This implies a different read-out of melatonin signaling in day-active species, including man. Dysregulation of circadian secretion may be a key to the increase of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This review discusses the impact of melatonin on insulin secretion transmitted through both the pertussis-toxin-sensitive membrane receptors MT1 (MTNR1a) and MT2 (MTNR1b) and the second messengers cAMP, cGMP and IP3. This is an important topic since, in several genetic association studies, single nucleotide polymorphisms of the human MT2-receptor have been described as being causally linked with an elevated risk of developing T2D. This article summarizes interrelationships between melatonin and insulin in type 1 diabetic (T1D) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats and humans. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source


Bazwinsky-Wutschke I.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Bieseke L.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Muhlbauer E.,Saxon Academy of science Leipzig | Peschke E.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Journal of Pineal Research | Year: 2014

The pineal hormone melatonin is known to influence insulin secretion via the G-protein-coupled receptor isoforms MT1 and MT2. The present study was aimed to further elucide the impact of melatonin on blood glucose regulation. To this end, mouse lines were used, in which one of the two or both melatonin receptors were deleted. In comparison with wild-type mice of the same age (8-12 months old), increased plasma insulin and melatonin levels and decreased blood glucose levels and body weights were detected in the MT1- and double-knockout lines. The elimination of melatonin receptor signalling also altered blood glucose concentrations, body weight and melatonin and insulin levels when comparing wild-type and receptor knockout mice of different ages (6 wk and 8-12 months old); such changes, however, were dependent on the type of receptor deleted. Furthermore, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results provided evidence that melatonin receptor deficiency has an impact on transcript levels of pancreatic islet hormones as well as on pancreatic and hepatic glucose transporters (Glut1 and 2). Under stimulated insulin secretion in the presence of melatonin in the rat insulinoma β-cells INS-1, the Glut1 transcript level was decreased. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrate that melatonin receptor knockout types affect blood glucose levels, body weight, plasma levels of melatonin and insulin, as well as pancreatic hormone and Glut1 expression in significantly different manners. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Bach A.G.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Muhlbauer E.,Saxon Academy of science Leipzig | Peschke E.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Endocrinology | Year: 2010

A decrease in the nighttime release of the pineal hormone melatonin is associated with aging and chronic diseases in animals an humans. Melatonin has a protective role in type 2 diabetes; however, its synthesis itself is affected in the disease. The aim of this study was to detect crucially impaired steps in the pineal melatonin synthesis of type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Therefore, plasma melatonin concentrations and the pineal content of melatonin and its precursors (tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, and N-acetylserotonin) were quantified in GK rats compared with Wistar rats (each group 8 and 50 wk old) in a diurnal manner (four animals per group and per time point). Additionally, the expression of pineal adrenoceptor subtype mRNA was investigated. We found that in diabetic GK rats, 1) inhibitory α-2-adrenoceptors are significantly more strongly expressed than in Wistar rats, 2) the formation of 5-hydroxytryptophan is crucially impaired, and 3) the pineal gland protein content is significantly reduced compared with that in Wistar rats. This is the first time that melatonin synthesis is examined in a type 2 diabetic rat model in a diurnal manner. The present data unveil several reasons for a reduced melatonin secretion in diabetic animals and present an important link in the interaction between melatonin and insulin. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society. Source


Bahr I.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Muhlbauer E.,Saxon Academy of science Leipzig | Albrecht E.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Peschke E.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Journal of Pineal Research | Year: 2012

Melatonin has been shown to modulate glucose metabolism by influencing insulin secretion. Recent investigations have also indicated a regulatory function of melatonin on the pancreatic α-cells. The present in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated whether melatonin mediates its effects via melatonin receptors and which signaling cascade is involved. Incubation experiments using the glucagon-producing mouse pancreatic α-cell line αTC1 clone 9 (αTC1.9) as well as isolated pancreatic islets of rats and mice revealed that melatonin increases glucagon secretion. Preincubation of αTC1.9 cells with the melatonin receptor antagonists luzindole and 4P-PDOT abolished the glucagon-stimulatory effect of melatonin. In addition, glucagon secretion was lower in the pancreatic islets of melatonin receptor knockout mice than in the islets of the wild-type (WT) control animals. Investigations of melatonin receptor knockout mice revealed decreased plasma glucagon concentrations and elevated mRNA expression levels of the hepatic glucagon receptor when compared to WT mice. Furthermore, studies using pertussis toxin, as well as measurements of cAMP concentrations, ruled out the involvement of Gαi- and Gαs-coupled signaling cascades in mediating the glucagon increase induced by melatonin. In contrast, inhibition of phospholipase C in αTC1.9 cells prevented the melatonin-induced effect, indicating the physiological relevance of the Gαq-coupled pathway. Our data point to the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling cascade in mediating melatonin effects in pancreatic α-cells. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that the glucagon-stimulatory effect of melatonin in pancreatic α-cells is melatonin receptor mediated, thus supporting the concept of melatonin-modulated and diurnal glucagon release. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

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