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Leipzig, Germany

Kaiser K.,German Academy of Science and Engineering | Lai Z.,CAS Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes | Schneider B.,University of Leipzig | Junge F.W.,Saxon Academy of science
Quaternary Geochronology | Year: 2010

Knowledge on valley formation and palaeohydrology of the Yarlung Zhangbo (named Brahmaputra south of the Himalayas) is still in an early stage. Research was conducted in the middle valley reach around Gonggar in order to investigate the sediment properties, age and palaeoenvironmental implication of a widespread aggradational valley terrace. This heavily dissected terrace, lying c. 25 m above the present floodplain, consists of topping aeolian and colluvial deposits, intermediate lacustrine fines and basal fluvial sands. Sedimentological properties of the lacustrine layers suggest a cold-climate depositional environment. Geochemical data refer to a common provenance of all sediments investigated from a regional catchment area, implying a local provenance of topping loesses and sands by aeolian sorting of nearby fluvial deposits. OSL dates, representing the first luminescence dating effort partly applied to non-aeolian sediments in this valley, cluster closely in the interval 11.7 ± 0.8-17.4 ± 1.4 ka. During the Late Pleistocene (until c. 16 ka) the investigated middle valley reach around Gonggar was occupied by a lake attaining an extension of at least 100 km. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Novothny A.,Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics | Novothny A.,Eotvos Lorand University | Frechen M.,Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics | Horvath E.,Eotvos Lorand University | And 2 more authors.
Quaternary Geochronology | Year: 2010

Anomalous fading of the infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signal from the polymineral fine-grain and K-feldspar fractions of aeolian sediments from Hungary has been studied. The samples in this study have previously been dated using the multiple aliquot additive dose (MAAD) protocol to measure the IRSL signal. The IRSL measurements using MAAD were conducted ∼4 weeks after the irradiation, making it difficult to assess to what extent these age estimates were affected by anomalous fading. In this study, equivalent doses were obtained using the single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR) protocol. The fading rate for each sample was calculated using the different IRSL components and different parts of the decay curve. For each sample, the middle part of the decay curve always showed a lower fading rate than the initial part of the decay curve. The difference between the fading rates for different parts of the decay curve was greater for the K-feldspars than for the polymineral fine grains. Fading corrected ages were calculated by integrating both the initial and the middle part of the decay curve. These ages were compared with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from quartz, infrared radiofluorescence (IR-RF) ages obtained from K-feldspars and also with independent ages, provided by radiocarbon dating of shells and charcoal, and uranium-series dating of travertine. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Luthgens C.,Free University of Berlin | Krbetschek M.,Saxon Academy of science | Bose M.,Free University of Berlin | Fuchs M.C.,TU Dresden
Quaternary Geochronology | Year: 2010

This study presents first results of a project which aims to develop an absolute chronology of the Weichselian ice marginal positions in north-eastern Germany using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating. Owing to the special geomorphological and stratigraphical setting, many of the sampling sites were situated close to the former ice margin. At some sections the sediments showed an incomplete resetting of the OSL signal. For this study the representative sandur sediment section from the Beelitz outwash cone was chosen to elaborate a strategy to reliably detect insufficient bleaching and to choose an appropriate age model for the calculation of the true burial dose of each sample. The age determined for the formation of the Beelitz outwash cone is 34.1 ± 3.0 ka. Although this age might still be a maximum age, this study shows that by applying the proposed methodological strategy, plausible ages can be derived from insufficiently bleached, ice proximal sandur sediments. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Phi van D.K.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Muhlbauer E.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Muhlbauer E.,Saxon Academy of science | Phi-van L.,Institute of Animal Welfare and Animal Husbandry
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms | Year: 2015

Serotonin (5-HT) has been reported to be involved in cancer progression by stimulating angiogenesis and cell growth. In this study, we examined the expression of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in regulating the 5-HTT gene in tumor cells. The 5-HTT gene expression was almost silenced in chicken lymphoma DT40, myelomonocytic tumor HD11 and hepatoma DU249 cells, compared to their physiological counterpart. In contrast, HDAC1 mRNA expression was increased in these cell lines. Indeed, the pan-HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) enhanced the 5-HTT mRNA expression in several tumor cell lines including the human cell lines HepG2 and THP-1 and increased the 5-HT uptake in HD11 cells. In addition, treatment with parthenolide, which is capable of depleting HDAC1, and knockdown of HDAC1 using siRNA resulted in increased 5-HTT mRNA expression, confirming the role of HDAC1 in the down-regulation of 5-HTT in the tumor cells. Deletion analysis of the 5-HTT promoter and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPß), in interacting with the 5-HTT promoter, mediated both the inhibition of the 5-HTT expression by HDAC1 and the activation by CREB-binding protein (CBP). Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found increased acetylation of histone H4 associated with the 5-HTT promoter in cells treated with TSA. Our results suggest that the 5-HTT gene is epigenetically downregulated by HDAC1 in several types of cancer. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Peschke E.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Schucht H.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Muhlbauer E.,Saxon Academy of science
Journal of Pineal Research | Year: 2010

This paper represents an essential aspect of recent investigations into the functional and clinical implications of insulin-melatonin interrelationships. The aim of the study was to analyze whether melatonin reduces insulin secretion in an animal in a manner comparable to the pattern observed in previous in vitro experiments; to this end, we used two models: Wistar and type 2-diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Thirty-two Wistar and 32 GK rats were divided into two subgroups of 16 rats each; each subgroup was treated either with or without melatonin. The daily administration of melatonin, starting in 8- wk-old rats, was adjusted to 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Melatonin was given daily during the dark period for 12 hr. After 9 wk of treatment, the rats were sacrificed in the middle of the dark period. Melatonin administration strongly enhanced the plasma melatonin level and diminished the expression of pancreatic melatonin receptor-mRNA, whereas the expression of pineal AA-NAT and HIOMT was unchanged. Furthermore, the experiments showed in agreement with recent in vitro results of pancreatic islets that plasma insulin levels were diminished after melatonin treatment. However, the pineal insulin receptor expression was increased after melatonin administration. The pancreatic expression of glucagon, GLUT2, and glucokinase was decreased in GK rats, whereas the glucose levels, as well as the parameters of glucose sensing, GLUT2-mRNA, and glucokinase-mRNA, were unchanged after melatonin administration in both Wistar and GK rats. In summary, the results show that melatonin administration decreases plasma insulin levels in vivo and, furthermore, that an insulin-melatonin antagonism exists. © 2010 The Authors.

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