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Muthayya S.,Sax Institute | Rah J.H.,United Nations Childrens Fund UNICEF India | Sugimoto J.D.,University of Florida | Sugimoto J.D.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The unified global efforts to mitigate the high burden of vitamin and mineral deficiency, known as hidden hunger, in populations around the world are crucial to the achievement of most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). We developed indices and maps of global hidden hunger to help prioritize program assistance, and to serve as an evidence-based global advocacy tool. Two types of hidden hunger indices and maps were created based on i) national prevalence data on stunting, anemia due to iron deficiency, and low serum retinol levels among preschool-aged children in 149 countries; and ii) estimates of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) attributed to micronutrient deficiencies in 136 countries. A number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as India and Afghanistan, had an alarmingly high level of hidden hunger, with stunting, iron deficiency anemia, and vitamin A deficiency all being highly prevalent. The total DALY rates per 100,000 population, attributed to micronutrient deficiencies, were generally the highest in sub-Saharan African countries. In 36 countries, home to 90% of the world's stunted children, deficiencies of micronutrients were responsible for 1.5-12% of the total DALYs. The pattern and magnitude of iodine deficiency did not conform to that of other micronutrients. The greatest proportions of children with iodine deficiency were in the Eastern Mediterranean (46.6%), European (44.2%), and African (40.4%) regions. The current indices and maps provide crucial data to optimize the prioritization of program assistance addressing global multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Moreover, the indices and maps serve as a useful advocacy tool in the call for increased commitments to scale up effective nutrition interventions. © 2013 Muthayya et al. Source


Walter S.R.,University of New South Wales | Olivier J.,University of New South Wales | Churches T.,Sax Institute | Grzebieta R.,University of New South Wales
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2011

The study aimed to assess the effect of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries given the ongoing debate in Australia as to the efficacy of this measure at a population level. We used hospital admissions data from New South Wales, Australia, from a 36 month period centred at the time legislation came into effect. Negative binomial regression of hospital admission counts of head and limb injuries to cyclists were performed to identify differential changes in head and limb injury rates at the time of legislation. Interaction terms were included to allow different trends between injury types and pre- and post-law time periods. To avoid the issue of lack of cyclist exposure data, we assumed equal exposures between head and limb injuries which allowed an arbitrary proxy exposure to be used in the model. As a comparison, analyses were also performed for pedestrian data to identify which of the observed effects were specific to cyclists. In general, the models identified a decreasing trend in injury rates prior to legislation, an increasing trend thereafter and a drop in rates at the time legislation was enacted, all of which were thought to represent background effects in transport safety. Head injury rates decreased significantly more than limb injury rates at the time of legislation among cyclists but not among pedestrians. This additional benefit was attributed to compulsory helmet legislation. Despite numerous data limitations, we identified evidence of a positive effect of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries at a population level such that repealing the law cannot be justified. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Randall D.A.,University of Western Sydney | Lujic S.,University of Western Sydney | Leyland A.H.,University of Glasgow | Jorm L.R.,University of Western Sydney | Jorm L.R.,Sax Institute
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health | Year: 2013

Objective: To investigate under-recording of Aboriginal people in hospital data from New South Wales (NSW), Australia, define algorithms for enhanced reporting, and examine the impact of these algorithms on estimated disparities in cardiovascular and injury outcomes. Methods: NSW Admitted Patient Data were linked with NSW mortality data (2001-2007). Associations with recording of Aboriginal status were investigated using multilevel logistic regression. The number of admissions reported as Aboriginal according to six algorithms was compared with the original (unenhanced) Aboriginal status variable. Age-standardised admission, and 30- and 365-day mortality ratios were estimated for cardiovascular disease and injury. Results: Sixty per cent of the variation in recording of Aboriginal status was due to the hospital of admission, with poorer recording in private and major city hospitals. All enhancement algorithms increased the number of admissions reported as Aboriginal, from between 4.1% and 37.8%. Admission and mortality ratios varied markedly between algorithms, with less strict algorithms resulting in higher admission rate ratios, but generally lower mortality rate ratios, particularly for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions: The choice of enhancement algorithm has an impact on the number of people reported as Aboriginal and on estimated outcome ratios. The influence of the hospital on recording of Aboriginal status highlights the importance of continued efforts to improve data collection. Implications: Estimates of Aboriginal health disparity can change depending on how Aboriginal status is reported. Sensitivity analyses using a number of algorithms are recommended. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia. Source


Randall D.A.,University of Western Sydney | Jorm L.R.,University of Western Sydney | Lujic S.,University of Western Sydney | O'Loughlin A.J.,University of Western Sydney | And 4 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2013

Background-This study examined revascularization rates after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients sequentially controlling for admitting hospital and risk factors. Methods and Results-Hospital data from the state of New South Wales, Australia (July 2000 through December 2008) were linked to mortality data (July 2000 through December 2009). The study sample were all people aged 25 to 84years admitted to public hospitals with a diagnosis of AMI (n=59 282). Single level and multilevel Cox regression was used to estimate rates of revascularization within 30 days of admission. A third (32.9%) of Aboriginal AMI patients had a revascularization within 30 days compared with 39.7% non-Aboriginal patients. Aboriginal patients had a revascularization rate 37% lower than non-Aboriginal patients of the same age, sex, year of admission, and AMI type (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.70). Within the same hospital, however, Aboriginal patients had a revascularization rate 18% lower (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.91). Accounting for comorbidities, substance use and private health insurance further explained the disparity (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.07). Hospitals varied markedly in procedure rates, and this variation was associated with hospital size, remoteness, and catheterization laboratory facilities. Conclusions-Aboriginal Australians were less likely to have revascularization procedures after AMI than non-Aboriginal Australians, and this was largely explained by lower revascularization rates at the hospital of first admission for all patients admitted to smaller regional and rural hospitals, a higher comorbidity burden for Aboriginal people, and to a lesser extent a lower rate of private health insurance among Aboriginal patients. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


Warren J.R.,University of Auckland | Warren J.R.,University of Western Sydney | Falster M.O.,University of Western Sydney | Fox D.,Sax Institute | And 2 more authors.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety | Year: 2013

Purpose: To assess the factors influencing adherence in long-term medication use as exemplified by statins. Methods: Data from an in-depth survey of Australians aged 45 years and over were linked to national prescription reimbursement data to assess medication possession ratio (MPR) for statins for the middle two years of a four-year period of statin possession. Poisson regression was used to calculate the relative risk (RR) for adherence (MPR≥80%) for patient characteristics and factors related to access to and need for health care services. Separate models were fit for patients receiving healthcare concession subsidies and those who do not ('general beneficiaries'). Results: In the analysis, 42492 concessional and 16110 general beneficiary patients were included, with 80.1% and 56.7% showing MPR≥80%, respectively. In both models, RR for adherence was significantly elevated for older (age 65+) and less healthy (worse self-rated health, pre-existing heart condition or obese) individuals, and for those who had private health insurance. Significantly lower RR (i.e. more non-adherence) was found for individuals reporting speaking a language other than English at home, who were smokers, were employed, and had higher levels of education, and for those who reported psychological distress. Income had no significant relationship with adherence, and the pattern of adherence by remoteness of area of residence was inconsistent. Conclusions: Poor adherence in long-term use of statins is commonplace, but a number of key predictors-including age, language other than English spoken at home, smoking status and psychological distress-are readily assessable by the prescribing practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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