Savonia University of Applied Sciences
Kuopio, Finland

Savonia University of Applied science is a local municipality-owned Finnish institution of higher education based in the cities of Kuopio, Iisalmi and Varkaus.Savonia offers mainly Bachelor degree studies, though some Master degree programmes are in operation. It is the sixth largest University of Applied science in Finland with about 6,500 students.The largest field of education is Engineering. Engineers graduate after a minimum of four years and 240 ECTS credits after which they are awarded with the degree of Insinööri , equivalent to a Bachelor of Engineering . The second largest field is Business, which educates its students for a minimum of three years and 210 ECTS credits. Business studies lead to the degree of Tradenomi, equivalent to Bachelor of Business Administration.Savonia University of Applied science is participating in the Bologna Process. Wikipedia.

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Heinonen-Tanski H.,University of Eastern Finland | Matikka V.,Savonia University of Applied Sciences
Water (Switzerland) | Year: 2017

Domestic wastewaters, which cannot be disposed through sewage networks, must be treated with different on-site treatment systems; these are usually commercial, small-scale treatment plants or built sand filters. These systems are usually maintained by the house's inhabitants. This study was achieved by analysing the chemical and microbiological data of 717 effluents collected in Finland and Sweden. There were inadequate reductions in 31% of phosphorus effluents, 22% of nitrogen effluents and 5% of biological oxygen demand compounds. The addition of a coagulant capable of precipitating phosphorus improved the performance of sand filters and biorotors. There are no legally binding limitations on the number of enteric microorganisms that can be present in an effluent, but the number of Escherichia coli and enterococci exceeded more than 100 colony forming units per 100 mL in 59% and 53% effluents studied, with the highest numbers for these indicators being more than 100,000 cfu per 100 mL. The number of E. coli and enterococci were lower when the concentration of phosphorus in effluent was less than 1 mg/L. The treatment efficiency varied extensively, even between similar plant models, possibly due to either irregular use, or after long pauses, when they were not being used. In addition, it is possible that the end users are not capable of properly maintaining these wastewater treatment plants. © 2017 by the authors.

Raisanen S.,Savonia University of Applied Sciences | Vehvilainen-Julkunen K.,University of Eastern Finland | Vehvilainen-Julkunen K.,Kuopio University Hospital | Gissler M.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether an optimal level of lateral episiotomy use can be found by assessing the correlation between the hospital-based variations in episiotomy use and rates/odds ratios of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS). STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective population-based register study. The study group, comprising women with spontaneous singleton vaginal deliveries, contained all 154,175 primiparous and all 234,236 multiparous women. The correlations between lateral episiotomy use and incidence/risk of OASIS (n = 1659) were assessed using nonlinear and linear regression modeling. RESULTS: The rates of episiotomy were inversely correlated with the risk of OASIS among both groups of women. OASIS rates increased from 0.5-1.0% as episiotomy rates decreased from 80-40%. CONCLUSION: Restricting lateral episiotomy use may result in higher OASIS rates. However, we could not determine the optimal level of episiotomy use since individual hospitals deviated substantially from the correlation curves. © 2012 Mosby, Inc.

Raisanen S.,Savonia University of Applied Sciences | Vehvilainen-Julkunen K.,University of Eastern Finland | Vehvilainen-Julkunen K.,Kuopio University Hospital | Cartwright R.,Hammersmith Hospital | And 4 more authors.
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2012

Objectives To identify and quantify the risks of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) separately in nulliparae, including women admitted for a first vaginal delivery after a previous caesarean section for their first birth, and multiparae delivered by vacuum extraction in Finland where the type of episiotomy is exclusively lateral. Design A retrospective population-based register study. Methods Nulliparous and multiparous women with OASIS were compared separately with women without OASIS using stepwise logistic regression analysis. Main outcome measures Risk of OASIS. Results Among a sample of 16 802 women whose infants were delivered by vacuum extraction between 2004 and 2007, the incidence of OASIS was significantly higher among nulliparous women (475 of 13 981, 3.4%) than multiparous women (40 of 2821, 1.4%), with adjusted odds ratio 2.44 (95% CI 1.77-3.39). Lateral episiotomy was associated with 46% decreased incidence of OASIS (adjusted odds ratio 0.54, 95% CI 0.42-0.70) in nulliparae delivered by vacuum extraction. There was no statistically significant association for multiparous women. An increase of 1000 g in birthweight increased the OASIS incidence 2.10-fold for nulliparae and 2.83-fold for multiparae. Conclusions Nulliparous women with infants delivered by vacuum extraction had an increased risk of OASIS compared with multiparous women. Lateral episiotomy was associated with a decreased incidence of OASIS, especially in women with large babies and long second stage. These results support liberal use of lateral episiotomy at vacuum extraction for nulliparous women at high risk of OASIS, but the role of episiotomy should be re-investigated in interventional randomised trials. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

Kajanus M.,Savonia University of Applied Sciences | Leskinen P.,Finnish Environment Institute | Kurttila M.,Finnish Forest Research Institute | Kangas J.,Metsahallitus
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2012

Connecting Multiple Criteria Decision Support (MCDS) methods with SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis yields analytical priorities for the SWOT factors and makes them commensurable. Decision alternatives can also be evaluated with respect to each SWOT factor. SWOT analysis provides the basic frame for analyses of operational environments to support strategic decision-making. MCDS methods enhance SWOT analysis and its results so that alternative strategic decisions can be prioritised overall. This benefits the utilisation of the SWOT-results in the decision making process. The methods also help in defining the action line alternatives that are based on the recognition of the most important operational environmental factors and their possible interdependencies. The MCDS method applied initially and most often within the SWOT framework has been the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), and the hybrid approach has been called the A'WOT. Any MCDS method, and its prioritisation principles, can, however, be applied and the existence of different techniques allows the adaptation of use of the MCDS method according to the needs of the decision-maker and the specific planning situation. This paper reviews the evolution of the A'WOT method with AHP, SMART and SMAA-O techniques applied within SWOT, and studies their applicability and the MCDS methods more generally, through required assessment techniques of decision-makers' preferences. The usability of the techniques is analysed with case studies in the field of strategic natural resources management planning. The article focuses mainly on analysis of the differences in MCDS methods from the perspective of the planning situation approached by SWOT. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Raisanen S.,Savonia University of Applied Sciences
Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja | Year: 2012

Obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) is a well-known, serious complication of vaginal delivery that can have serious implications for women's subsequent health. The risk factors for OASIS included first vaginal delivery, high birthweight, prolonged second stage of birth, and operative vaginal deliveries. Manual perineum protection and use of mediolateral or lateral episiotomy decreased the risk of OASIS. However, in the order of 99-1000 women must be exposed to an episiotomy in vaginal deliveries, and 13-67 in operative vaginal deliveries to prevent a single OASIS. The results indicate the value of selective use of medio-lateral/lateral episiotomy in spontaneous vaginal iberal use of deliveries whereas more I it might be advisable in operative vaginal deliveries.

Korhonen I.,Lappeenranta University of Technology | Lankinen R.,Savonia University of Applied Sciences
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2014

Wireless sensors have become a focus of study in the field of measurement technologies. The power supply of many wireless sensors is based on batteries or external power sources. However, there is increasing interest in finding solutions where the batteries can be leaved away and the power for the wireless sensors is produced from the environment in which the sensors operate. The technologies required are called energy harvesting or scavenging technologies. This paper introduces the principles, modeling and a practical implementation of a self-powering solution for a wireless sensor for energy boilers or other hot reactor vessels. With the aid of energy solution introduced, the wireless sensor can operate autonomously without any batteries. One of the design targets in this work was that the top part of harvester's mechanics must fit to the opening or assembly tube of diameter less than 15 mm in the boiler wall reserved for standard instrument assemblies. So the top of harvester collects and conducts thermal energy to element generating electricity from it. The harvester and further the measuring and communication electronics are mounted outside the hot area. The harvester solution introduced in the paper can produce about 114 mW power, when top of harvester mechanics was inserted to the test oven heated to temperature of +500 °C. The sensor function or type is not defined nor limited in this study. The electric energy generated by harvester can be used to power, for example, temperature, heat flux, flow, vibration or other little energy needing sensors. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Saarela A.-M.,Savonia University of Applied Sciences
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2014

Objective The aim was to explore how the behaviour of consumers changed while they selected food in a supermarket environment after they were reminded about weight management. This investigation was carried out from the perspective of selection criteria, reading of package labels, nutritional quality of the products selected and time taken to select a product. Design The subjects, who were actively watching their weight, participated in two consecutive tasks in a supermarket. They were given a shopping list of eleven food categories and asked to think aloud while selecting from each category a product they usually buy and a product they would use for weight management. The data (n 792 selections) were collected through interviews and a verbal analysis protocol combined with wireless audio-visual observation. Subjects Thirty-six consumers were recruited from a sample of 367 supermarket customers. Setting Kuopio, Finland. Results The subjects' behaviour changed radically after they were reminded about weight management. In the first selection, taste and familiarity were the main food selection criteria while in the latter selection the energy/fat content predominated. Consequently, the nutritional quality of products improved greatly because subjects read package labels twice as much in the latter selection. The time taken to select a product increased significantly, on average, from 23 (sd 10) to 60 (sd 51) s/product (P = 0·000). Conclusions Only by reminding consumers about weight management was there a significant impact on their food selection behaviour. Marketing communication should be developed which quickly and easily promotes consumers' awareness of healthy food in supermarkets. Copyright © The Author 2013.

Huuskonen A.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Pesonen M.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Kamarainen H.,Savonia University of Applied Sciences | Kauppinen R.,Savonia University of Applied Sciences
Agricultural and Food Science | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to determine beef production traits of purebred Holstein-Friesian (Hol) and Hol×beef breed crossbred bulls. The data collected from slaughterhouses included observations of 87323 purebred Hol, 783 Hol×Aberdeen angus (Hol×Ab), 621 Hol×Blonde d'Aquitaine (Hol×Ba), 562 Hol×Charolais (Hol×Ch), 349 Hol×Hereford (Hol×Hf), 1691 Hol×Limousin (Hol×Li) and 570 Hol×Simmental (Hol×Si) bulls. For estimating valuable cuttings also a separate dataset was collected and included observations of 8806 purebred Hol, 57 Hol×Ab, 29 Hol×Ba, 22 Hol×Ch, 15 Hol×Hf, 111 Hol×Li and 58 Hol×Si bulls. Crossbreeding Hol cows with late maturing breeds (Ba, Ch, Li, Si) had favorable effects on carcass gain, conformation and proportion of high value joints of the progeny when compared to purebred Hol bulls. No advantages in proportion of valuable cuttings seemed to be obtained by crossbreeding with Ab or Hf breeds, while the improvements in gain and conformation were intermediate compared to the late maturing crossbreds.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: FP7-2008-PEOPLE-NIGHT | Award Amount: 95.00K | Year: 2008

The objective of the Researchers Night 2008 event in Eastern Finland on 26th of September is to bridge the gap between city and science, to allow casual face-to-face meetings between citizens and researchers in a relaxed atmosphere as a joint undertaking of two regions, five research and development organisations and several associated organisations. The activities of the Researchers Night 2008 Eastern Finland will be organised simultaneously in two regions, in cities of Kuopio and Joensuu with their surroundings. The activities to be arranged, like science cafs, photos and drawing competitions, games and radio shows, give large public an opportunity to meet researchers from a wide range of scientific fields in an enjoyable environment and a variety of entertaining and fun activities will aim to highlight the appeal of pursuing a career in research. To introduce the international character of research international guests, researchers and students will be invited to take part to a number of activities. The event seeks to enable new thematic perspectives by bringing researchers, cities, schools, associations and companies together in order to show how research translates into practice in a concrete way. The event increases citizens knowledge about the diversified research carried out in the universities of Eastern Finland and embraces the universities consolidation and creation of the University of Eastern Finland in 2010. Public at large will learn about the impact research has on the regions and on larger scale to Europes competitiveness and sustainability. Both of the regional events follow the same variety and structure of activities, but their themes and topics differ based on regional tendencies and strengths. The themes will highlight the know-how, expertise and strengths characteristic for the two regions yet being simultaneously local public concerning and actual.

Mikkonen I.,Savonia University of Applied Sciences | Hynynen M.-A.,Savonia University of Applied Sciences
Health Education | Year: 2012

Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe nurses' and other health care professionals' views about their patient education skills and how to develop them. Design/methodology/approach: The data for the study were collected from the participants of the online education course on patient education. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Findings: The results show that, in the experience of health care professionals, it is important to make a shift from the professional-led education and counselling towards an education relationship in which the professional and the patient are equals and represent different kinds of expertise and to develop patient education towards patient-centredness supporting the patients' self-management. Research limitations/implications: The sample used in the research is small. Practical implications: The participants in this study experienced that, as patient educators, it is necessary for them to acknowledge their own abilities, beliefs and values in order to be able to develop their patient education skills. This is noteworthy because appreciating and acknowledging the importance of reflection is one prerequisite for the paradigm shift from the traditional patient education model towards patient-centred education. Consequently, it is important to investigate further the best ways of facilitating the development of health care professionals' skills with regard to patient-centred education. Originality/value: The study showed that, through education and training, health care professionals can recognize the need to develop their patient education towards patient-centredness. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

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