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Sahu D.,Canadian Department of National Defence | Kannan G.M.,Canadian Department of National Defence | Vijayaraghavan R.,Saveetha University
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2014

With the rapid development of nanomedicines, it is important to understand their potential immunotoxicity. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have several applications in the pharmaceutical and biomedicine industries. This study investigates the effect of particles size (nano and micro) of ZnO on viability, phagocytosis, and cytokine induction in human monocytes, THP-1 cells, a model of the innate immune system. Cells were incubated with nano (approximately 100 nm) and micro (approximately 5 μm) sized ZnO particles in a concentration range of 10-100 μg/ml. The parameters measured included the MTT assay, phagocytosis assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), gene expression, and DNA analysis. ZnO particles significantly decreased cell viability in a size- and concentration-dependent manner associated with significant alterations in phagocytic capacity of monocytes. Exposure of THP-1 cells to both sizes of ZnO stimulated and increased release of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6, as well as chemokine IL-8, and upregulated the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 genes. However, ZnO particles did not markedly affect monocytes DNA. Collectively, these results suggest higher propensity of nano ZnO particles in inducing cytotoxicity and inflammation in human monocytes regardless of micro size, and caution needs to be taken concerning their biological application. © 2014 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Ranganathan S.,Saveetha University | Senthilvelan T.,Pondicherry Engineering College
International Review of Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2012

Glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites are alternative to engineering materials because of economic, light weight, corrosive resistance and superior properties. The experimental research under taken by the scholars is to study the impact of machining parameters on surface roughness of composite material by applying artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface method (RSM). The orthogonal turning operations were carried out on the composite material using tungsten carbide (WC) insert. During machining, the cutting speed (Vc), feed rate (fs) and depth of cut (a p) were varied. Turning experiments were designed based on the statistical three level full factorial experimental design techniques. An artificial neural network and response surface method have been developed, which can predict the surface roughness of the machined workpiece. The experimental results concur well with the results obtained from predictive model. © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All right reserved.

Soh C.L.,Saveetha University | Narayanan V.,Saveetha University
International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2013

The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the benefits of orthognathic surgery to quality of life, the different motivations and perceptions of patients towards orthognathic surgery, and the various methods that have been used to analyze these changes, in patients who undergo orthognathic surgery for dentofacial deformities. A review of the literature was carried out, and articles published from 2001 to June of 2012 that satisfied the inclusion criteria were included in the review. A total of 21 articles were included. The results indicate that orthognathic patients experience an improvement in quality of life after surgery. Each individual patient has different motivations and expectations from the treatment. Also the use of validated instruments helped in quantifying results. Further research should be aimed at higher levels of evidence in study design, quantifying the changes for different types of dentofacial deformities and surgeries, and have a longer follow-up duration. © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

Mary Anjalin F.,Saveetha University
Der Pharma Chemica | Year: 2014

We report the electrical studies of nanocomposites of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF).The MWCNTs were synthesized by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. Solvent evaporation method is used to prepare MWCNT-PVDF composite films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study structure and morphology of the composites. The temperature dependant conductivity measurements for the nanocomposites were performedusing the well established four probe method.

Vijayaraghavan R.,Saveetha University
Defence Science Journal | Year: 2012

A number of emergency situations require immediate drug administration for reducing the morbidity and mortality. Autoinjectors are very useful devices for the rapid administration of the recommended drugs. They are well suited for emergency and mass casualty management, convenient to use and fast in action. A variety of autoinjectors are available viz., for nerve agent poisoning (atropine sulphate and pralidoxime chloride), anaphylactic shock (epinephrine), seizures (diazepam), and migraine (sumatriptan). The advantages of these autoinjectors are reviewed here with a focus on the requirement for autoinjectors for an antibacterial and an analgesic drug. © 2012, DESIDOC.

Uma Maheswari T.N.,Saveetha University
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

Oral leukoplakia is one of the common potentially malignant disorder which is mostly associated with the use of tobacco either in the form of smoking or smokeless, though idiopathic leukoplakia in patients free from habits has also been reported. Diagnosis of the lesion in most of the cases is mainly based on history of use of tobacco and clinical finding such as raised elevated non-scrap able white patch seen in oral mucosa. Oral leukoplakia once diagnosed, the patient is advised to discontinue the habit after proper counselling of the risk of leukoplakia turning into malignancy and is supported with mainly antioxidants in mild cases. There are few clinical trials using other non surgical management like topical bleomycin, laser therapy, photodynamic therapy etc., but use of antioxidants is more common. This review article aims in evaluating all the clinical trials using antioxidants namely Vitamin A, E, C, and lycopene as they are the most commonly used antioxidants in treatment of oral leukoplakia to assess the outcome measures such as clinical resolution, adverse effects, recurrence and malignant transformation.

Ramanathan S.,Saveetha University | Jagannathan N.,Saveetha University
Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

The macrophages role within the tumor microenvironment has amended by a variety of factors, thus serves a vital role in tissue morphogenesis. The role of macrophages in health and disease differs enormously as the macrophage has shown dual functions. Macrophage has a basic role in antigen presentation serving as the first line of defense in diseases. However the presence of cytokines and growth factors, both together have regulated the macrophage to become negative effectors promoting tumor activity. Hence macrophages are a double edged weapon, and any imbalance in the regulatory mechanisms caused a shift from tumoricidal to tumorigenic activities. TAMs would be the main reason of the invasion in tumor microenvironment enhancing as well as tumor invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis promoting tumor genesis. Macrophages are the multifunctional cells which have conducted by the tumor cells to produce tumor promoting factors that enable the stimulation of angiogenesis, and tumor cell invasion. This fact has resulted initiation or promotion of tumor genesis, where the tumor has progressed to an upper malignant stage. The present review has focused on the tumor associated macrophages and their roles in tumor genesis.

Surapaneni K.M.,Saveetha University | Tekian A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Medical Education Online | Year: 2013

Background: Teaching basic science courses is challenging in undergraduate medical education because of the ubiquitous use of didactic lectures and reward for recall of factual information during examinations. The purpose of this study is to introduce concept maps with clinical cases (the innovative program) to improve learning of biochemistry course content. Methods: Participants were first year medical students (n=150) from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (India); they were randomly divided into two groups of 75, one group attending the traditional program, the other the innovative program. Student performance was measured using three written knowledge tests (each with a maximum score of 20). The students also evaluated the relevance of the learning process using a 12-item questionnaire. Results: Students in the innovative program using concept mapping outperformed those in the traditional didactic program (means of 7.13-8.28 vs. 12.33-13.93, p<0.001). The students gave high positive ratings for the innovative course (93-100% agreement). Conclusion: The new concept-mapping program resulted in higher academic performance compared to the traditional course and was perceived favorably by the students. They especially valued the use of concept mapping as learning tools to foster the relevance of biochemistry to clinical practice, and to enhance their reasoning and learning skills, as well as their deeper understanding for biochemistry. © 2013 Krishna M. Surapaneni and Ara Tekian.

Danda A.K.,Saveetha University | Ravi P.,Saveetha University
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2011

Purpose: To conduct a systematic review of published clinical trials on the effectiveness of extended postoperative antibiotics in orthognathic surgery. Materials and Methods: Electronic databases were searched for randomized clinical trials. Data from relevant articles were extracted and assessed. The primary outcome variable was surgical site infection. Extracted data were analyzed using a meta-analytical program with a random effects model. Results: In total 532 patients were assessed in 8 clinical trials. Wound infection occurred in 30 of 268 patients in the short-term prophylaxis group (frequency, 11.2%) and in 10 of 264 patients in the extended-term group (frequency, 3.8%). Extended antibiotic therapy was more effective in decreasing the risk of postoperative wound infection (odds ratio, 3.2; number needed to treat, 13.5). Conclusion: Extended postoperative antibiotic treatment does have a place in decreasing the risk of postoperative wound infection in orthognathic surgery. More trials are needed to standardize a proper regimen. © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the postoperative complications after fixation of mandibular angle fractures with 2 noncompression miniplates, in which a single plate is fixed onto the superior border of the mandible and the other plate to the lateral aspect of the mandible, with the standard technique of a single noncompression miniplate fixed onto the superior border of the mandible. Materials and Methods: We randomly divided 54 patients with unilateral mandibular angle fractures into 2 groups, with 27 in each group. Randomization was done with lots in closed envelopes. Group I patients were treated with a single noncompression miniplate fixed at the superior border as suggested by Champy et al through an intraoral approach. Group II patients were treated with 2 noncompression miniplates in which 1 plate was fixed in a manner similar to that in group I and the other plate was fixed to the lateral aspect of the angle of the mandible with combined intraoral and transcutaneous access through a trocar and cannula. The patients were assessed for malocclusion, infection, wound dehiscence, and plate exposure. The data were analyzed statistically with the χ2 test, and statistical analysis was performed with SPSS statistical software for Windows, version 8.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). Results: Group I comprised 21 men and 6 women with a mean age of 32.4 years (range, 18-43 years). Group II comprised 23 men and 4 women with a mean age of 29.6 years (range, 21-49 years). No patients complained of malocclusion in either group. Wound dehiscence occurred in 3 patients (11.1%) in group I and 2 patients (7.4%) in group II, which was not statistically significant (χ2 = 0.0, P > .99). Infection occurred in 1 patient (3.7%) in group I and 2 patients (7.4%) in group II, which was not statistically significant (χ2 = 0.0, P > .99). One patient from both the groups required plate removal. Scar developed at the transcutaneous incision site in 5 patients (18.5%) in group II. Conclusion: The use of 2 noncompression miniplates for treating noncomminuted fractures of the mandibular angle does not seem to have any advantage over the use of a single plate. © 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

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