Gokul G.,Saveetha University
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2016
Aim: To review the common sleep disorders faced by adolescents. Objective: To review the different sleep disorders faced by adolescents and its consequences on them and the society. Background: Sleep is a vital to the brain and body as during sleep important body functions take place which helps in the normal progression of organ functions. Disturbances in sleep pattern would lead to drastic changes in body and also in social wellbeing. It is found that mostly the adolescents are affected adversely due to lack of sleep due to many reasons. Stress is one of the most important reasons for sleep disorders which is followed by unhealthy diet and environmental factors. Sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, etc are rampant in today’s society which not only affects adolescents but also the people concerned with them. Reason: This review is done in order to understand and have a clear view about the sleep disorders faced by adolescents in today’s world. © RJPT All right reserved.
Mohan S.K.,Saveetha University |
Jainu M.,SSN College of Engineering
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Year: 2014
Background: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an emerging disease belonging to the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spectrum, which may progress to fibrosis and thereby to cirrhosis of the liver. Currently, no definitive and effective treatment strategies have been identified to treat NASH. Objective: To study the effect of pioglitazone, quercetin, and hydroxy citric acid on lipid profile parameters and lipoproteins in experimentally induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Materials & Methods: NASH was induced in the rats by feeding them the high-fat diet for eight weeks. In drug treated groups, after the rats were fed with high-fat diet for four weeks, they were treated in conjunction with intragastric administration of pioglitazone (4mg/kg body wt), quercetin (20mg/kg body wt) and hydroxy citric acid (150 mg/kg body wt) for an additional four weeks. The concentration of total cholesterol, free cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, free fatty acids (FFAs), high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), were studied. Results: The experimentally induced-NASH rats treated with pioglitazone, quercetin, and hydroxy citric acid showed marked reduction in the concentration of lipid profile and lipoproteins when compared with that of the NASH-induced group, where as quercetin reversed the changes in a significant manner compared with pioglitazone & HCA. Conclusion: The protective effect of pioglitazone, quercetin, and hydroxy citric acid was observed via the decrease of lipoprotein and lipid concentrations towards normal ranges in the drug-treated groups.
Surapaneni K.M.,Saveetha University |
Jainu M.,SSN College of Engineering
Pharmacognosy Research | Year: 2014
Background: Non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), severe form of diseases belonging to the spectrum of the Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is an asymptomatic disease which leads to fibrosis and finally to cirrhosis, an end stage liver disease. Objective: To study the effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on hepatic biomarkers and various biochemical parameters in experimentally induced non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Materials and Methods: Male Wister rats were divided into 8 groups. The activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and γ-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) were assayed in serum. The levels of various other biochemical parameters such as serum albumin, total bilirubin, creatinine, urea, uric acid and glucose were also estimated in experimental NASH. Results: The NASH group produced severe liver injury by significantly increasing the serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and LDH compared with that of the control. However, the experimental NASH rats treated with pioglitazone, with quercetin and with hydroxy citric acid showed an obvious decrease in ALT, AST, GGT and LDH levels when compared with that of NASH induced group. A significant increase in the levels of albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, glucose and total bilirubin was noticed in experimentally induced NASH group (group 2) when compared to rats in control group (group 1). Conclusion: It could be inferred from this study that, pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid may afford protection to the liver against NASH, as evidenced by the results of this study on the levels of various biochemical parameters such as glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine and bilirubin. Whereas from the results of hepatic marker enzymes, it is evident that optimal protection was observed after quercetin treatment against experimental NASH whereas pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid also confers protection to some extent against NASH.
Jayakaran T.G.,Saveetha University
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research | Year: 2014
It is estimated that more than 2-4% of hospital admissions are related to drug induced reactions. There is an ever expanding list of medications linked to pathologic reactions in the oral and perioral region. Several patterns of diseases have been identified, and these can assist the clinician in determining a possible cause and effect relationship with a particular or a group of drugs. The mechanism of drug induced reaction is not always known or not always predictable since aspects other than pharmacodynamics and/or pharmacokinetics, as well as various interacting variables contribute to the final outcome. Drug induced oral reactions clinically present as Xerostomia, Swelling, Dysguesia, Nonspecific Ulceration, Vesiculobullous or ulcerative mucositis, pigmentation of mucosa, Gingival enlargement, oral malodor, taste alterations, discoloration of teeth. This review gives an update of the various drug induced oral reactions, so that Dentists and oral health professionals increase their knowledge for a better diagnosis and therapy.
Soh C.L.,Saveetha University |
Narayanan V.,Saveetha University
International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2013
The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the benefits of orthognathic surgery to quality of life, the different motivations and perceptions of patients towards orthognathic surgery, and the various methods that have been used to analyze these changes, in patients who undergo orthognathic surgery for dentofacial deformities. A review of the literature was carried out, and articles published from 2001 to June of 2012 that satisfied the inclusion criteria were included in the review. A total of 21 articles were included. The results indicate that orthognathic patients experience an improvement in quality of life after surgery. Each individual patient has different motivations and expectations from the treatment. Also the use of validated instruments helped in quantifying results. Further research should be aimed at higher levels of evidence in study design, quantifying the changes for different types of dentofacial deformities and surgeries, and have a longer follow-up duration. © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.
Mary Anjalin F.,Saveetha University
Der Pharma Chemica | Year: 2014
We report the electrical studies of nanocomposites of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF).The MWCNTs were synthesized by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. Solvent evaporation method is used to prepare MWCNT-PVDF composite films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study structure and morphology of the composites. The temperature dependant conductivity measurements for the nanocomposites were performedusing the well established four probe method.
Vijayaraghavan R.,Saveetha University
Defence Science Journal | Year: 2012
A number of emergency situations require immediate drug administration for reducing the morbidity and mortality. Autoinjectors are very useful devices for the rapid administration of the recommended drugs. They are well suited for emergency and mass casualty management, convenient to use and fast in action. A variety of autoinjectors are available viz., for nerve agent poisoning (atropine sulphate and pralidoxime chloride), anaphylactic shock (epinephrine), seizures (diazepam), and migraine (sumatriptan). The advantages of these autoinjectors are reviewed here with a focus on the requirement for autoinjectors for an antibacterial and an analgesic drug. © 2012, DESIDOC.
Ramanathan S.,Saveetha University |
Jagannathan N.,Saveetha University
Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014
The macrophages role within the tumor microenvironment has amended by a variety of factors, thus serves a vital role in tissue morphogenesis. The role of macrophages in health and disease differs enormously as the macrophage has shown dual functions. Macrophage has a basic role in antigen presentation serving as the first line of defense in diseases. However the presence of cytokines and growth factors, both together have regulated the macrophage to become negative effectors promoting tumor activity. Hence macrophages are a double edged weapon, and any imbalance in the regulatory mechanisms caused a shift from tumoricidal to tumorigenic activities. TAMs would be the main reason of the invasion in tumor microenvironment enhancing as well as tumor invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis promoting tumor genesis. Macrophages are the multifunctional cells which have conducted by the tumor cells to produce tumor promoting factors that enable the stimulation of angiogenesis, and tumor cell invasion. This fact has resulted initiation or promotion of tumor genesis, where the tumor has progressed to an upper malignant stage. The present review has focused on the tumor associated macrophages and their roles in tumor genesis.
Danda A.K.,Saveetha University |
Ravi P.,Saveetha University
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2011
Purpose: To conduct a systematic review of published clinical trials on the effectiveness of extended postoperative antibiotics in orthognathic surgery. Materials and Methods: Electronic databases were searched for randomized clinical trials. Data from relevant articles were extracted and assessed. The primary outcome variable was surgical site infection. Extracted data were analyzed using a meta-analytical program with a random effects model. Results: In total 532 patients were assessed in 8 clinical trials. Wound infection occurred in 30 of 268 patients in the short-term prophylaxis group (frequency, 11.2%) and in 10 of 264 patients in the extended-term group (frequency, 3.8%). Extended antibiotic therapy was more effective in decreasing the risk of postoperative wound infection (odds ratio, 3.2; number needed to treat, 13.5). Conclusion: Extended postoperative antibiotic treatment does have a place in decreasing the risk of postoperative wound infection in orthognathic surgery. More trials are needed to standardize a proper regimen. © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.
Danda A.K.,Saveetha University
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2010
Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the postoperative complications after fixation of mandibular angle fractures with 2 noncompression miniplates, in which a single plate is fixed onto the superior border of the mandible and the other plate to the lateral aspect of the mandible, with the standard technique of a single noncompression miniplate fixed onto the superior border of the mandible. Materials and Methods: We randomly divided 54 patients with unilateral mandibular angle fractures into 2 groups, with 27 in each group. Randomization was done with lots in closed envelopes. Group I patients were treated with a single noncompression miniplate fixed at the superior border as suggested by Champy et al through an intraoral approach. Group II patients were treated with 2 noncompression miniplates in which 1 plate was fixed in a manner similar to that in group I and the other plate was fixed to the lateral aspect of the angle of the mandible with combined intraoral and transcutaneous access through a trocar and cannula. The patients were assessed for malocclusion, infection, wound dehiscence, and plate exposure. The data were analyzed statistically with the χ2 test, and statistical analysis was performed with SPSS statistical software for Windows, version 8.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). Results: Group I comprised 21 men and 6 women with a mean age of 32.4 years (range, 18-43 years). Group II comprised 23 men and 4 women with a mean age of 29.6 years (range, 21-49 years). No patients complained of malocclusion in either group. Wound dehiscence occurred in 3 patients (11.1%) in group I and 2 patients (7.4%) in group II, which was not statistically significant (χ2 = 0.0, P > .99). Infection occurred in 1 patient (3.7%) in group I and 2 patients (7.4%) in group II, which was not statistically significant (χ2 = 0.0, P > .99). One patient from both the groups required plate removal. Scar developed at the transcutaneous incision site in 5 patients (18.5%) in group II. Conclusion: The use of 2 noncompression miniplates for treating noncomminuted fractures of the mandibular angle does not seem to have any advantage over the use of a single plate. © 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.