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Prithiviraj E.,University of Madras | Suresh S.,Sathyabama University | Manivannan M.,Saveetha Medical College and Hospital | Prakash S.,University of Madras
Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to analyze pathophysiological changes after testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) and microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) procedures. Twenty four mature male Wistar albino rats with a proven breeding history, weighing approximately 200-250 gm were used for the study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups (n=6), i.e., control, sham-control, unilateral TESA, and MESA. Using a 22G needle, the aspiration procedures were done in testis or caudal epididymis. At the end of 60 days of survival, blood samples were collected and processed for antisperm antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After euthanasia, testes and epididymides were collected and processed for paraffin embedding. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and TUNEL technique. Serum antisperm antibody titer significantly increased in TESA (P < 0.001) when compared to MESA. Histomorphometric analysis indicated testicular alterations in TESA and MESA, with significant damage in TESA in both testes (P<0.001). Following the MESA procedure, ipsilateral caudal and carpus epididymis showed significant alterations (P<0.001) and no such alterations were seen in the ipsilateral caput and intact contralateral epididymis. TUNEL staining revealed an up-regulation of apoptosis in both contra- and ipsilateral testes of TESA. Needle prick had produced drastic and irreversible alterations in testis of TESA. Ensuing processes of immunological and inflammatory reaction had the potential to disrupt spermatogenesis and increase germ cell apoptosis. However, extrapolating conclusions from the experimental model to the clinic needs to be done cautiously. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Janani A.V.,Saveetha University | Surapaneni K.M.,Saveetha Medical College and Hospital
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVES: The exact pro-oxidant and antioxidant status in alcoholic liver disease among the chronic alcoholics is still not clear. Consumption of excess amounts of ethanol causes liver damage by several mechanisms. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased incidence of variety of illnesses including cirrhosis. Studies have shown that ethanol consumption may result in increased oxidative stress with increased formation of lipid peroxides and free radicals. METHODS: To add a new insight to the question, changes in the levels of antioxidant vitamins ascorbic acid and plasma vitamin E (non enzymatic antioxidant parameters) and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase in erythrocytes were measured in 30 patients with alcoholic liver disease (study subjects) and compared to 30 age and sex matched healthy subjects (controls). Statistical analysis between controls and patients was performed by the unpaired t-test using the SPSS package. RESULTS: It was observed that there was a significant increase in the activities of SOD and GPx and a significant decrease in erythrocyte ascorbic acid, plasma vitamin E levels and catalase activity in patients with alcoholic liver disease, among chronic alcoholics when compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study have shown higher oxygen free radical production, evidenced by the decreased levels of ascorbic acid, vitamin E and catalase activity, supporting the hypothesis that there is increased oxidative stress in patients with alcoholic liver disease. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes may be a compensatory regulation in response to increased oxidative stress. The decreased concentrations of the antioxidant vitamin status support the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation is an important causative factor in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease among chronic alcoholics. These data reveal that antioxidant defense mechanisms might be impaired in these patients. These findings also provide a theoretical basis for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, such as antioxidant supplementation.

Prathibha K.M.,Saveetha Medical College and Hospital | Johnson P.,Sri Ramachandra University | Ganesh M.,Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute | Subhashini A.S.,Sri Ramachandra University
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

Background: A lack of consensus on the possible association between diabetes and salivary dysfunction motivated us to conduct this investigation on the salivary parameters in diabetic and non diabetic subjects. This could also make the use of saliva as an alternative to that of blood in the diagnosis/monitoring of diabetes mellitus. Objectives: To compare the salivary flow rates and the salivary physical and biochemical parameters of diabetic (D) and non diabetic (ND) subjects. Material and Methods: The participants in this study included 30 non diabetic subjects and 30 diabetic volunteers who had Type 2 Diabetes mellitus for a minimum of 2 years. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected in the fasting state. Salivary pH, flow rate and organic and inorganic constituents were evaluated. Data which was collected was statistically analysed and interpreted. Results: Salivary pH (ND=7.09±0.29, D=6.69±0.35), flow rate (ND=0.67±0.07, D=0.46±0.02) and salivary amylase (ND=92.51±13.74, D=19.20±1.8) were significantly lower in diabetics. They had significantly higher levels of salivary glucose (ND=4.33 ± 0.29, D=17.31±2.05), total proteins (ND=424.46±237.34, D=877.29±603.84), sodium (ND=4.31±0.65, D=14.42±1.83) and potassium (ND=20.84±0.71, D=25.95±1.56) and lower levels of calcium (ND=6.39±0.5, D=4.22±0.12) in comparison to those in the non-diabetic group. Conclusion: Significant variations were observed in salivary physical and biochemical parameters between diabetics and non diabetics. Evaluation of salivary parameters can be a cost effective and a non invasive alternative for screening, diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes, to blood.

Baby M.K.,Sri Ramachandra University | Muthu P.K.,Saveetha Medical College and Hospital | Johnson P.,Sri Ramachandra University | Kannan S.,Saveetha Medical College and Hospital
Lung India | Year: 2014

Background: Nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC) system transports the mucus layer covering the nasal epithelium towards nasopharynx by ciliary beating at a frequency of 7-16 Hz. NMC is altered by septal deviations, upper respiratory infections, and drugs. Few studies have revealed significant depression of ciliary activity in smokers. We conducted this study to compare NMC and influence duration of smoking on NMC in adult smokers and nonsmokers using saccharin test. Materials and Methods: Our study included 30 nonsmokers and 30 smokers (21-40 years) who were not on any medications and had no history of any systemic illness. Time elapsing until the first experience of sweet taste at posterior nasopharynx, following placement of saccharin particle approximately 1 cm behind the anterior end of inferior turbinate was recorded as NMC time in minutes using standard method described by Anderson. Mean NMC of both groups were compared using Student's t -test and influence of duration was analyzed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: NMC was significantly prolonged in smokers (481.2 ± 29.83; P < 0.01) in comparison to nonsmokers (300.32 ± 17.42 s). A statistically significant increase in NMC was observed with an increase in duration of smoking habit (NMC in smoking <1 year = 492.25 ± 79.93 s, 1-5 years = 516.7 ± 34.01 s, >5 years = 637.5 ± 28.49 s; F statistic = 20.8968, P = 0.0000). Conclusions: NMC measurement is a simple and useful index for the assessment of effect of smoking on the ciliary activity of respiratory mucosa. Prolonged clearance observed in smokers of our study may be due to slowed ciliary beat frequency or reduction in number of cilia and changes in viscoelastic properties of mucus.

Gurusamy L.,Saveetha Medical College and Hospital | Jegadeesan M.,Saveetha Medical College and Hospital | Jayakumar S.,Saveetha Medical College and Hospital
Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Year: 2016

Fox-Fordyce disease is a rare, chronic skin disorder which affects the apocrine areas. This disease is due to the obstruction of the apocrine sweat duct. Extragenital regions are commonly affected than the genital region. We, herein, report a case of Fox-Fordyce in a female, with onset in the fifth decade and involving only the genital region. © 2016 Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

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