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Gokul G.,Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2016

Objective: To find and review the eating disorders and its effects towards the oral cavity. Methods: Various articles were reviewed from Pubmed and the internet and were analyzed to write the review. Results: It is evident from many studies that eating disorders and its effect are prevalent in our societies and has found to have a major effect in oral health. Conclusion: Eating disorders are found to be affecting almost 15% of young girls to varying degrees and around 5 to 10 times more than men. These illnesses involve a constant pondering with food, a hallucinative body image and high end measures are taken by the victims to control weight to the extent of harming their body and mental health and also disturbs their social relationships and interactions. The most common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa (restriction of food intake) and bulimia (episodes of compulsive eating). Damage to the teeth associated with eating disorders are normally caused due to both mechanical and chemical wear. The enamel can also be eroded by the excess of acid from the stomach and reduces the enamel layer and thereby exposes the underlying dentine which is sensitive; the backs of the teeth, facing the palate and at the gum line around the incisors also is affected. In due time,the enamel slowly erodes in the backside of the teeth. © 2016, Innovare Academics Sciences Pvt. Ltd. All rights reserved.

Murthykumar K.,Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research | Year: 2013

Dental caries is a infectious microbiologic disease of the tooth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of calcified tissues. Its seen in all age groups, few preventive agents have been evaluated to prevent the caries. Xylitol, a polysugar, obtained from birch tree has been shown to reduce dental caries when mixed with food, chewing gums and milk. Dental caries are prevalent in acidic pH where Streptoccocus mutans (MS) ferment and does resulting in demineralization of tooth this acidic pH is created by consumption of carbohydrate foods which results in decreased salivary secretion which in turn result demineralization of tooth, where as Streptococcus mutans cannot ferment xylitol thus it reduces MS by altering their metabolic pathway and enhance remineralization and helps arrest dentinal caries. Reduction in caries rate are greater, when xylitol is used as the sugar substitutes. This review discuss the taste acceptability of xylitol in milk as a step towards measuring the effectiveness for the reduction of dental caries.

Monalisa R.,Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2016

Aim: The aim of the article is to do a literature review on the role of leptin in obesity. Objective: This review article deals with the role of leptin in obesity. Leptin is a hormone made by fat cells which regulates the amount of fat stored in the body. Background: Leptin is a 16- kilodalton adipocyte-derived hormone that circulates in the serum in the free and bound form. Serum levels of leptin reflect the amount of energy stored in adipose tissue. Short-term energy imbalance as well as serum levels of several cytokines and hormones influence circulating leptin levels. Leptin acts by binding to specific receptors in the hypothalamus to alter the expression of several neuropeptides that regulate neuroendocrine function and energy intake and expenditure. Thus, leptin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity and eating disorders and is thought to mediate the neuroendocrine response to food deprivation. Reason: The reason of the review is to highlight the role of leptin in obesity. © RJPT All right reserved.

Noor S.S.S.E.,Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2016

Aim: To make a review on tobacco associated malignant and non malignant lesions of the oral cavity. Objective: To have a better knowledge on the tobacco associated lesions of oral cavity. Back ground: The excessive use of tobacco products has been associated with various lesions in the oral cavity. Tobacco associated lesions include tooth stains, abrasions, smokers melanosis, acute necrotizing, ulcerative gingivitis and other periodontical conditions, burns, and keratotic patches, black hairy tongue, nicotinic stomatitis, palatal erosions, leukoplakia, epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. A routine intraoral examination by a dental health professional can reveal most of these lesions at an early stage, and early intervention may prevent serious sequelae. Here we describe malignant and non malignant lesions associated with tobacco use, basic biopsy principles for such lesions and intervention stratagies that dental professionals may use to reduce the chances of their patients developing precancerous lesions. The significance and treatment of non malignant and malignant lesions are described here. Reason:As oral lesions are very much common in population I was interested to know about the lesions associated due to conception of tobacco. © RJPT All right reserved.

Ravinthar K.,Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2016

In this review the effects of scleroderma in the mouth of the patient is foccused. Scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by hardening of the skin. This is due to extensive deposition of collagen in the tissues. There are various types of scleroderma. Scleroderma affects the internal organs such as the heart, lung and the kidney. All the oral tissues are affected. These oral problems include xerostomia, which is reduced salivary secretion due to fibrosis of the salivary gland and microstomia, a condition in which patients have a limited mouth opening are the most common problems faced by scleroderma patients. This can lead to dysgeusia, a condition in which there is a loss of taste sensation of the mouth which ultimately leads to weight loss due to reduced appetite. Intraorally, dental decay, gingivitis, poor ora l hygiene, thickening of the periodontal ligament and difficulty in retention of dentures are some of the oral problems of this auto immune disorder. These problems can significantly reduce the quality of life of the scleroderma patients. Due to the various oral manifestations of this disease, it is important for the scleroderma patients to maintain good oral hygiene. Some simple treatment measures can be adopted by dentists while treating the scleroderma patients. Since dentists may be the first people to encounter this disorder in their patients due to various oral manifestations of this multifaceted disorder, dentists need to be able to identify these patients accurately as scleroderma patients. Appropriate measures and treatment protocols should be adopted for the safe, comfortable and successful treatment of these patients. © RJPT All right reserved.

Rubika J.,Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2016

Diazepam is often considered the prototypical benzodiazepine and the “grandfather” of the drug class; It is a reliable agent for treating stress and anxiety in adults. Dental patients with generalized anxiety, belonephobia (fear of needles and sharp instruments), prior dental trauma, or generalized fear of the dentist can take diazepam in order to reduce their anxieties. A variety of single and incremental dose protocols are used to medicate the patient as early as the day before treatment. It also can be taken 1 hour before the procedure. Medication additionally helps reduce memory or the sights and smells of the dental office to avoid recall of any trauma. This medication belongs to a class called benzodiazepines which act on the brain and nerves to produce a calming effect. It works by enhancing the effects of a certain natural chemical in the body (GABA).Diazepam also can be given through a vein in the arm for conscious sedation. When given by mouth, diazepam is very safe. But it does often cause side effects, including, forgetfulness, impaired thinking. Certain groups of people should not take diazepam, they are people with narrow-angle glaucoma,people with sleep apnea, pregnant women. It should be administered only by people with advanced training in anesthesiology. © RJPT All right reserved.

Vane S.C.S.,Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2016

Aim: To do a literature review on complications, management and use of oral hygiene techniques for people who wear oral and peri oral piercings. Objective: This article tries to decode the various complications of the oral cavity associated with piercing and methods to avoid potential after effects such as their post- management and oral hygiene techniques. Background: Piercing of the oral cavity is a popular form of expression of one’s self, especially in the Western world, which has several associated complications. Oral piercing of tongue, cheek, uvula and frenum are common between young adults. Tongue piercings are the most common. The first effect of piercing would be swelling of that region. To avoid embedding of the jewellery into mucosa, they are initially large and then the size subsequently shortened to avoid accidental biting and causing trauma to teeth. The side effects include swelling, pain, fractured teeth, infection, hyper salivation, gingival trauma and difficulty in mastication. The article will include various precautionary methods to avoid the after effects and their management such as diet recommendations. Reason For Research: To understand the complications of this popular body art. © RJPT All right reserved.

Balaji S.,Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2016

Aim: To understand the significance of Umbilical cord blood as a source of stem cells. Objective: To summarise the importance of umbilical cord blood Background: Umbilical cord blood is the blood that remains in the blood vessels of the placenta and the portion of umbilical cord attached to it. Cord blood is often used nowadays on an experimental basis as a source of stem cells similar to those found in bone marrow. Umbilical cord blood is source of rare but precious haematopoetic stem cells and progenitor cells. Cord blood has an enhanced capacity to proliferate the progenitor cells and self renewal in vitro. Cord blood is easier to collect than bone marrow and can be stored frozen until it is needed. A major limitation of cord blood transfusion is that the blood obtained from a single umbilical cord does not contain as many haematopoeitic stem cells as a bone marrow donation. Banking cord blood is a way of preserving potentially lifesaving cells that is usually thrown away after birth. Newer techniques involving the stored cord blood may be developed to treat many diseases in the future. Reason: This topic was taken because the umbilical cord blood can be used to cure many genetic and blood diseases as it is a rich source of stem cells. © RJPT All right reserved.

Raj S.C.B.,Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2016

Aim: To make a review on the needs and managements of oral care among a people with intellectual disability. Objective: The objective of this study is to find out the various oral problems in a adults with intellectual disability and to review the ways of improving their dental health. Background: Previous research has found an unmet need for oral care. The key factors which have been indicated are low expectations, fear of treatment, lack of awareness among carers and problems in accessing dental services. The aims of the present study were: (1) to assess the extent of unmet clinical needs in a group. (2) to explore their perceptions of teeth and contact with dentists to identify how oral care can be improved. Reason: Caretakers requested training in oral care and the use of dental services. Dental screening checks and oral care training for carers should be made easily available. Care plans should include tooth-brushing and dietary issues for all clients who have their own natural teeth. © RJPT All right reserved.

Sanmugam K.,Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2016

Aim: The aim is to review whether depression is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. Objective: To understand that Alzheimer disease is not a part of ageing and its relationship with depression Background: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative disease marked by memory loss and inability to function in daily life. It is a general term for memory loss and other intellectual abilities serious enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer disease is not a normal part of ageing. Alzheimer disease is caused by protein plaques and tangles that build up in and around nerve cells in the brain, causing cell death. Most patients with depression have believed to develop Alzheimer disease. This review deals with the relationship between depression and onset risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Depression was associated with an increase onset risk of Alzheimer disease. Reason: To know whether depression is an onset risk factor for Alzheimer disease. © RJPT All right reserved.

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