Save the Children International

London, United Kingdom

Save the Children International

London, United Kingdom
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Scales P.C.,Search Institute | Benson P.L.,Search Institute | Dershem L.,Save the Children International | Fraher K.,Search Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Research on Adolescence | Year: 2013

Kishoree Kontha ("Adolescent Girls' Voices") was implemented in Bangladeshi villages to build the developmental assets (e.g., support from others, social competencies) of rural girls through peer education in social skills, literacy, and school learning. The Developmental Assets Profile (DAP) measured the project's impact on ecological and individual assets. Analysis of two cohorts involving more than 600 intervention and 400 control adolescents (Mage = 13.5) showed a significant increase in project girls' developmental assets, with an average effect size, net of contamination and control group scores, of .80. The results suggest the Project's effectiveness in improving human and social capital for vulnerable adolescent girls living in rural Bangladesh villages, and the utility of the DAP as a cross-culturally relevant measurement tool. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2013 Society for Research on Adolescence.


Pelling M.,King's College London | O'Brien K.,University of Oslo | Matyas D.,Save the Children International
Climatic Change | Year: 2015

Transformation as an adaptive response to climate change opens a range of novel policy options. Used to describe responses that produce non-linear changes in systems or their host social and ecological environments, transformation also raises distinct ethical and procedural questions for decision-makers. Expanding adaptation to include transformation foregrounds questions of power and preference that have so far been underdeveloped in adaptation theory and practice. We build on David Harvey’s notion of activity space to derive a framework and research agenda for climate change adaptation seen as a political decision-point and as an opportunity for transformation, incremental adjustment or resistance to change in development pathway. Decision-making is unpacked through the notion of the activity space into seven coevolving sites: the individual, technology, livelihoods, discourse, behaviour, the environment and institutions. The framework is tested against practitioner priorities to define an agenda that can make coherent advances in research and practice on climate change adaptation. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Fast L.,University of Notre Dame | Freeman F.,Save the Children United States | O'Neill M.,Save the Children International
Disasters | Year: 2015

This paper explores three questions related to acceptance as a security management approach. Acceptance draws upon relationships with community members, authorities, belligerents and other stakeholders to provide consent for the presence and activities of a non-governmental organisation (NGO), thereby reducing threats from these actors. Little is documented about how NGOs gain and maintain acceptance, how they assess and monitor the presence and degree of acceptance, or how they determine whether acceptance is effective in a particular context. Based on field research conducted in April 2011 in Kenya, South Sudan and Uganda, we address each of these three issues and argue that acceptance must be actively sought as both a programme and a security management strategy. In the paper we delineate elements common to all three contexts as well as missed opportunities, which identify areas that NGOs can and should address as part of an acceptance approach. © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.


Hunt L.,Save the Children International | Gupta-Wright A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Simms V.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Tamba F.,Ministry of Health and Sanitation | And 12 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Clinical management of Ebola virus disease remains challenging. Routine laboratory analytics are often unavailable in the outbreak setting, and few data exist for the associated haematological and biochemical abnormalities. We aimed to assess laboratory and clinical data from patients with Ebola virus disease to better inform clinical management algorithms, improve understanding of key variables associated with outcome, and provide insight into the pathophysiology of Ebola virus disease. Methods: We recruited all patients, alive on arrival, with confirmed Ebola virus disease who were admitted to the Kerry Town Ebola treatment centre in Sierra Leone. At admission, all patients had clinical presentation recorded and blood taken for Ebola confirmation using reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and for haematological and biochemical analysis. We studied the association between these and clinical outcome. The primary outcome was discharge from the Ebola treatment centre. Findings: 150 patients were admitted to the treatment centre between Dec 8, 2014, and Jan 9, 2015. The mean age of patients was 26 years (SD 14·7). Case fatality rate was 37% (55/150). Most patients presented with stage 2 (gastrointestinal involvement, 72/118 [61%]) and stage 3 (severe or complicated, 12/118 [10%]) disease. Acute kidney injury was common (52/104 [50%]), as were abnormal serum potassium (32/97 [33%]), severe hepatitis (54/92 [59%]), and raised C-reactive protein (21/100 [21%]). Haematological abnormalities were common, including raised haematocrit (15/100 [15%]), thrombocytopenia (47/104 [45%]), and granulocytosis (44/104 [42%]). Severe acute kidney injury, low RT-PCR cycle threshold (<20 cycles), and severe hepatitis were independently associated with mortality. Interpretation: Ebola virus disease is associated with a high prevalence of haematological and biochemical abnormalities, even in mild disease and in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Clinical care that targets hypovolaemia, electrolyte disturbance, and acute kidney injury is likely to reduce historically high case fatality rates. Funding: None. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Girma T.,Jimma University | Mossie A.,Jimma University | Getu Y.,Save the Children International
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2015

Background: Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a psychostimulant herb widely cultivated and used in Ethiopia. The link between khat use and body composition is little known. Objective: The aim was to determine the association between body composition and khat use. Methods: We recruited 415 individuals 18-78 years of age from Jimma Town. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data were collected using structured questionnaires. Fat mass (FM, kg) and fat-free mass (FFM, kg) were estimated from whole-body bio impedance. Weight (kg), FM and FFM were indexed to height (m) as BMI (kg/m2), fat mass index (FMI) (kg/m) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) (kg/m), respectively. Independent predictors of BMI, FMI and FFMI were identified using regression analysis. Result: Participants' mean ± SD of age was 37 ± 13 years and 205 (53.2 %) were males. Mean ± SD of BMI, FMI and FFMI were 21.0 kg/m2 ± 4.1, 6.8 kg/m ± 5.2 and 27.9 kg/m ± 3.8, respectively. Multivariable model showed that, compared with non-chewers, khat chewers had a lower BMI (B = -1.56, 95 % CI -0.78, -2.33) and FMI (B = 2.19, 95 % CI -1.32, -3.06). FMI was lower in cigarette smokers than non-smokers by -1.36 kg/m (95 % CI -0.23, -2.49). Concurrently, khat and cigarette users increased FMI by 2.78 (95 % CI 0.11, 5.44). FFMI decreased with age (B = -0.02, 95 % CI -0.05, -0.002). Conclusion: FMI and BMI were lower in khat users than non-users, but there was no difference in lean mass. The consequence of this body composition change should be investigated. © 2015 Girma et al.


Ragazzoni L.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Ingrassia P.L.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Echeverri L.,Save the Children International | Maccapani F.,University of Piemonte Orientale | And 3 more authors.
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness | Year: 2015

Both virtual and hybrid simulation training offer a realistic and effective educational framework and opportunity to provide virtual exposure to operational public health skills that are essential for infection control and Ebola treatment management. This training is designed to increase staff safety and create a safe and realistic environment where trainees can gain essential basic and advanced skills. © 2015 Society for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, Inc.


Ashburn K.,Georgetown University | Kerner B.,Save the Children U.S. | Ojamuge D.,Save the Children International | Lundgren R.,Georgetown University
Prevention Science | Year: 2016

Violence against women and violence against children in Uganda are recognized as significant public health concerns. Exposure to violence at home as a child can increase the likelihood of perpetrating or experiencing violence later in life. These two forms of violence share similar risk factors and often, but not always, co-occur at the household level. Parenting programs have shown promise in reducing physical child punishment. Targeting men has also been proven effective in transforming attitudes related to gender roles and expectations and intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. The REAL Fathers Initiative is a 12-session father mentoring program implemented by volunteers that is designed to reduce child exposure to violence at home, breaking the cycle of intergenerational violence. Evaluation results comparing survey data among men exposed to the intervention and those unexposed demonstrate significant reductions in IPV at end line (aOR 0.48, CI 0.31, 0.76, p < 0.001) and over the longer term follow-up (aOR 0.47, CI 0.31, 0.77, p < 0.001) and significant reductions in physical child punishment at long-term follow-up (aOR 0.52, CI 0.32, 0.82, p < 0.001). © 2016 The Author(s)


PubMed | Jimma University, Save the Children International and Valid International
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have an increased risk of mortality, infections and impaired physical and cognitive development compared to well-nourished children. In parts of Ethiopia not considered chronically food insecure there are no supplementary feeding programmes (SFPs) for treating MAM. The short-term outcomes of children who have MAM in such areas are not currently described, and there remains an urgent need for evidence-based policy recommendations.We defined MAM as mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of 11.0 cm and <12.5 cm with no bilateral pitting oedema to include Ethiopian government and World Health Organisation cut-offs. We prospectively surveyed 884 children aged 6-59 months living with MAM in a rural area of Ethiopia not eligible for a supplementary feeding programme. Weekly home visits were made for seven months (28 weeks), covering the end of peak malnutrition through to the post-harvest period (the most food secure window), collecting anthropometric, socio-demographic and food security data.By the end of the study follow up, 32.5% (287/884) remained with MAM, 9.3% (82/884) experienced at least one episode of SAM (MUAC <11 cm and/or bilateral pitting oedema), and 0.9% (8/884) died. Only 54.2% of the children recovered with no episode of SAM by the end of the study. Of those who developed SAM half still had MAM at the end of the follow up period. The median (interquartile range) time to recovery was 9 (4-15) weeks. Children with the lowest MUAC at enrolment had a significantly higher risk of remaining with MAM and a lower chance of recovering.Children with MAM during the post-harvest season in an area not eligible for SFP experience an extremely high incidence of SAM and a low recovery rate. Not having a targeted nutrition-specific intervention to address MAM in this context places children with MAM at excessive risk of adverse outcomes. Further preventive and curative approaches should urgently be considered.


PubMed | Jimma University and Save the Children International
Type: | Journal: BMC research notes | Year: 2015

Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a psychostimulant herb widely cultivated and used in Ethiopia. The link between khat use and body composition is little known.The aim was to determine the association between body composition and khat use.We recruited 415 individuals 18-78 years of age from Jimma Town. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data were collected using structured questionnaires. Fat mass (FM, kg) and fat-free mass (FFM, kg) were estimated from whole-body bio impedance. Weight (kg), FM and FFM were indexed to height (m) as BMI (kg/m(2)), fat mass index (FMI) (kg/m) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) (kg/m), respectively. Independent predictors of BMI, FMI and FFMI were identified using regression analysis.Participants mean SD of age was 37 13 years and 205 (53.2 %) were males. Mean SD of BMI, FMI and FFMI were 21.0 kg/m(2) 4.1, 6.8 kg/m 5.2 and 27.9 kg/m 3.8, respectively. Multivariable model showed that, compared with non-chewers, khat chewers had a lower BMI (B = -1.56, 95 % CI -0.78, -2.33) and FMI (B = 2.19, 95 % CI -1.32, -3.06). FMI was lower in cigarette smokers than non-smokers by -1.36 kg/m (95 % CI -0.23, -2.49). Concurrently, khat and cigarette users increased FMI by 2.78 (95 % CI 0.11, 5.44). FFMI decreased with age (B = -0.02, 95 % CI -0.05, -0.002).FMI and BMI were lower in khat users than non-users, but there was no difference in lean mass. The consequence of this body composition change should be investigated.


PubMed | Georgetown University, Save the Children International and Save the Children U.S.
Type: | Journal: Prevention science : the official journal of the Society for Prevention Research | Year: 2016

Violence against women and violence against children in Uganda are recognized as significant public health concerns. Exposure to violence at home as a child can increase the likelihood of perpetrating or experiencing violence later in life. These two forms of violence share similar risk factors and often, but not always, co-occur at the household level. Parenting programs have shown promise in reducing physical child punishment. Targeting men has also been proven effective in transforming attitudes related to gender roles and expectations and intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. The REAL Fathers Initiative is a 12-session father mentoring program implemented by volunteers that is designed to reduce child exposure to violence at home, breaking the cycle of intergenerational violence. Evaluation results comparing survey data among men exposed to the intervention and those unexposed demonstrate significant reductions in IPV at end line (aOR 0.48, CI 0.31, 0.76, p<0.001) and over the longer term follow-up (aOR 0.47, CI 0.31, 0.77, p<0.001) and significant reductions in physical child punishment at long-term follow-up (aOR 0.52, CI 0.32, 0.82, p<0.001).

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