Savanna Agricultural Research Institute
Savanna Agricultural Research Institute
Naab J.B.,Savanna Agricultural Research Institute |
Naab J.B.,West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use |
Mahama G.Y.,Savanna Agricultural Research Institute |
Yahaya I.,Savanna Agricultural Research Institute |
Prasad P.V.V.,Kansas State University
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2017
Conservation agriculture (CA) practices are being widely promoted in many areas in sub-Saharan Africa to recuperate degraded soils and improve ecosystem services. This study examined the effects of three tillage practices [conventional moldboard plowing (CT), hand hoeing (MT) and no-tillage (NT)], and three cropping systems (continuous maize, soybean-maize annual rotation, and soybean/maize intercropping) on soil quality, crop productivity, and profitability in researcher and farmer managed on-farm trials from 2010 to 2013 in northwestern Ghana. In the researcher managed mother trial, the CA practices of NT, residue retention and crop rotation/intercropping maintained higher soil organic carbon, and total soil N compared to conventional tillage practices after 4 years. Soil bulk density was higher under NT than under CT soils in the researcher managed mother trails or farmers managed baby trials after 4 years. In the researcher managed mother trial, there was no significant difference between tillage systems or cropping systems in maize or soybean yields in the first three seasons. In the fourth season, crop rotation had the greatest impact on maize yields with CT maize following soybean increasing yields by 41 and 49% compared to MT and NT maize, respectively. In the farmers’ managed trials, maize yield ranged from 520 to 2700 kg ha-1 and 300 to 2000 kg ha-1 for CT and NT, respectively, reflecting differences in experience of farmers with NT. Averaged across farmers, CT cropping systems increased maize and soybean yield ranging from 23 to 39% compared with NT cropping systems. Partial budget analysis showed that the cost of producing maize or soybean is 20-29% cheaper with NT systems and gives higher returns to labor compared to CT practice. Benefit-to-cost ratios also show that NT cropping systems are more profitable than CT systems. We conclude that with time, implementation of CA practices involving NT, crop rotation, intercropping of maize and soybean along with crop residue retention presents a win-win scenario due to improved crop yield, increased economic return, and trends of increasing soil fertility. The biggest challenge, however, remains with producing enough biomass and retaining same on the field. © 2017 Naab, Mahama, Yahaya and Prasad.
Oteng-Frimpong R.,Savanna Agricultural Research Institute |
Konlan S.P.,CSIR Animal Research Institute |
Denwar N.N.,Savanna Agricultural Research Institute
International Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2017
Groundnut, the most important grain legume in Ghana, is largely cultivated under rainfed conditions within the Guinea savanna zone of the country. The pods and haulms are important sources of income for smallholder farmers in the region. There is an emerging market for groundnut haulms as livestock feed in Ghana. A population of 30 groundnut genotypes were evaluated for yield (pod and haulm) and its components as well as good haulm nutritive value. High significant differences were observed among the genotypes for all agronomic traits. Average pod yield ranged from 1.6 to 5.7 t/ha with SAMNUT 23 and ICGV-IS 13081 being the most productive. Eight out of the 30 genotypes produced haulm yields above 8 t/ha. There was no significant difference among genotypes for in vitro gas production, digestible organic matter, ash, neutral detergent fibre, and metabolizable energy. However, crude protein, crude fibre, and acid detergent fibre were significantly different. Crude protein content was highest (12.53%) in GAF 1723 and lowest (8.00%) in ICGV-IS 08837. Genotypes GAF 1723, ICGV 00064, and ICGV-IS 13998 combined good pod/haulm yield with high haulm nutritive quality. Their utilization will improve farmers' income and livelihoods in the Guinea savanna of Ghana. © 2017 Richard Oteng-Frimpong et al.
Luguterh A.,University for Development Studies |
Dioggban J.,University for Development Studies |
Sunday A.D.,Savanna Agricultural Research Institute
Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management | Year: 2016
In order to determine stable rice genotypes (Oryza Sativa L.) with high grain yield through a single parameter, field experiment was conducted using fifteen rice genotypes in two different conditions (irrigated and rainfed) in a complete randomized block design with three replications across four locations within two rice producing hubs in Northern Ghana; the Savelugu hub in the Northern Region and the Navrongo hub in the Upper East Region. Combined analysis of variance showed significant differences for the interaction between the genotypes and the environments, indicating the possibility of selecting stable genotypes. The results of the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis revealed that 12.31% of variability was justified by the interaction between the genotype and the environment. The scores of the principal interaction components showed high variability for the environments relative to the variety effects. The study identified genotypes Perfume (short), Basmati 370-1, genotypes GH1837, Good and new (JP) and genotype Perfume (short) as stable entries. The genotypes Perfume (short), GH1837, Basmati 370-1, and Good and new (JP) were observed to be stable with high grain yield across both rainfed and irrigated conditions. © IEOM Society International. © IEOM Society International.
Rodenburg J.,Africa Rice Center |
Zwart S.J.,Africa Rice Center |
Kiepe P.,Africa Rice Center |
Narteh L.T.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO |
And 2 more authors.
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2014
With an estimated surface area of 190. M. ha, inland valleys are common landscapes in Africa. Due to their general high agricultural production potential, based on relatively high and secure water availability and high soil fertility levels compared to the surrounding uplands, these landscapes could play a pivotal role in attaining the regional objectives of food security and poverty alleviation. Besides agricultural production, i.e. mainly rice-based systems including fish-, vegetable- fruit- and livestock production, inland valleys provide local communities with forest, forage, hunting and fishing resources and they are important as water buffer and biodiversity hot spots. Degradation of natural resources in these vulnerable ecosystems, caused by indiscriminate development for the sole purpose of agricultural production, should be avoided. We estimate that, following improved water and weed management, production derived from less than 10% of the total inland valley area could equal the total current demand for rice in Africa. A significant part of the inland valley area in Africa could hence be safeguarded for other purposes.The objective of this paper is to provide a methodology to facilitate fulfilment of the regional agricultural potential of inland valleys in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) such that local rural livelihoods are benefited and regional objectives of reducing poverty and increasing food safety are met, while safeguarding other inland-valley ecosystem services of local and regional importance. High-potential inland valleys should be carefully selected and developed and highly productive and resource-efficient crop production methods should be applied. This paper describes a participatory, holistic and localized approach to seize the regional potential of inland valleys to contribute to food security and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed over a 100 papers, reference works and databases and synthesized this with insights obtained from nearly two decades of research carried out by the Africa Rice Center and partners. We conclude that sustainable rice production in inland valleys requires a step-wise approach including: (1) the selection of '. best-bet' inland valleys, either new or already used ones, based on spatial modelling and a detailed feasibility study, (2) a stakeholder-participatory land use planning within the inland valley based on multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods and using multi-stakeholder platforms (MSP), (3) participatory inland-valley development, and (4) identification of local production constraints combining model simulations and farmer participatory priority exercises to select and adapt appropriate practices and technologies following integrated management principles. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Pule-Meulenberg F.,Tshwane University of Technology |
Gyogluu C.,Tshwane University of Technology |
Naab J.,Savanna Agricultural Research Institute |
Dakora F.D.,Tshwane University of Technology
Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2011
Six promiscuous soybean genotypes were assessed for their ability to nodulate with indigenous root-nodule bacteria in Ghana, with Bradyrhizobium japonicum WB74 serving as positive control. Although the results revealed free nodulation of all six genotypes in both inoculated and uninoculated plots, there was a marked effect of inoculation on photosynthetic rates and whole-plant C. Inoculation also increased stomatal conductance in TGx1485-1D, TGx1448-2E, TGx1740-2F and TGx1445-3E, leading to significantly elevated transpiration rates in the last two genotypes, and a decrease in TGx1485-1D, TGx1440-1E and Salintuya-1, resulting in reduced leaf transpiration and decreased C accumulation. Nodulation, total plant biomass, plant N concentration and content also increased and ∂15N of the six genotypes, except for TGx1448-2E decreased. Significantly higher %Ndfa resulted in all the soybean genotypes tested (except for TGx1485-1D), and the symbiotic N yield in TGx1740-2F and TGx1448-2E doubled. PCR-RFLP revealed 18 distinct IGS types present in root nodules of the six promiscuous soybean genotypes, with IGS type II being isolated from all six genotypes, followed by IGS types X and XI from five out of the six genotypes. Marked differences in strain IGS type symbiotic efficiency were revealed. For example, as sole nodule occupant, IGS type XI produced high symbiotic N in TGx1445-3E, but low amounts in TGx1448-2E. Inoculated Salintuya-1, which trapped nine strain IGS types in its root nodules, was the most promiscuous genotype, but produced less symbiotic N compared to genotypes with fewer strains in their root nodules. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH.
Abukari I.A.,Savanna Agricultural Research Institute |
Shankle M.W.,North Mississippi Research and Extension Center |
Reddy K.R.,Mississippi State University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015
The herbicide S-metolachlor is used to control or suppress annual grasses, nutsedges and several broadleaf weeds in sweetpotato. However, a decline in storage root quality is suspected when an excessive rainfall occurs within 24h after application. A sunlit, controlled environment experiment was conducted to investigate sweetpotato response to five levels of S-metolachlor (0.00, 0.86, 1.72, 2.58 and 3.44kgha-1), and two levels of simulated rainfall (0 and 38mm at 51mmh-1) immediately after application. Sweetpotato slips were transplanted into white polyvinyl chloride pots filled with sandy loam soil. S-metolachlor treatments were applied to slips and a simulated rainfall treatment delivered immediately after transplanting and herbicide treatment. All pots were transferred to sunlit growth chambers that were maintained at 30/22°C, day/night temperatures and ambient carbon dioxide concentration (400μLL-1) for 60 days. An evapotranspiration-based irrigation system was used to supply water and nutrients. Plant biomass components and quality of storage roots were recorded 60 days after transplanting. There was no difference between rainfall treatments across S-metolachlor rates for vine lengths, leaf numbers and leaf area. These parameters, however, declined linearly and significantly with increase in S-metolachlor concentration. Total storage root weight declined linearly with increased S-metolachlor concentration; the decline was steeper with simulated rainfall. Yield of marketable storage roots declined by 18 and 31% in the absence of rainfall and 55 and 79% in the presence of rainfall with S-metolachlor at minimum (0.86kgha-1) and maximum (1.43kgha-1) recommended label rates, respectively, used to control weeds. Yield reduction was directly proportional to the rate of S-metolachlor applied in the absence or presence of rainfall; 77 and 123g fresh weight kg-1ha-1 S-metolachlor for no-rainfall and rainfall treatment, respectively. These results can be used to improve management decisions to optimize yield under field conditions as well as to mitigate risk of injury that could be associated with the use of S-metolachlor in sweetpotato production systems. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Kombiok J.M.,Savanna Agricultural Research Institute
Tropical Agriculture | Year: 2013
The mean seed yield of sesame (Sesamum orientale L.) grown in Ghana by broadcasting the seeds is low. A field experiment to determine the effect of different plant populations and planting distances on the seed yield of sesame was conducted at Nyankpala in the northern Savanna zone of Ghana in 2009 and 2010. The treatments including row planting populations of 333,000/ha, 332,000/ha, 222,000/ha, 166,000/ha and broadcasting at the rate of 300,000 seeds/ha were laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated four times with SJ2 as the test crop variety. The most appropriate plant populations and planting distances that significantly (p< 0.05) increased seed yield/ha were 60 x 5 cm (333,000 plants/ha) and 60 x 10 cm spacing (332,000 plants/ha). Although plant population by broadcasting method was similar to the above; the seed yield was significantly (p<0.05) lower because the method of planting resulted in over-crowding which might have enhanced interplant competition for resources such as nutrients. Plant spacing (60 x 15 and 60 x 20 cm) that gave lower plant densities produced significantly (p<0.05) higher branches and pod number/plant but these could not be translated into higher seed yields/unit area as these compensatory factors were not enough to raise yields/unit area. Pod length, seeds/pod and plant height at harvest were not affected by plant population in the study. Farmers in the northern savanna zone of Ghana should therefore be sensitized and encouraged to adopt the 60 x 5 cm spacing at 1 plant/stand (333,000 plants/ha) or 60 x 10 cm spacing at 2 plants/stand for high sesame yields. The broadcasting method should be discouraged since it results in low seed yields and makes weed control, fertilizer application and harvesting more difficult © 2013 Trop. Agric. (Trinidad).
Sugri I.,Savanna Agricultural Research Institute |
Nutsugah S.K.,Savanna Agricultural Research Institute |
Yirzagla J.,Savanna Agricultural Research Institute
Research Journal of Seed Science | Year: 2011
To address the poor seed viability problem of pearl millet in Ghana, the influences of time of harvesting, some seed physical characteristic and moisture content relations on viability were evaluated. Harvesting was done on day 1,3, 5, 7 and 14 from the physiological maturity or the hard-dough stage. The seeds were also fractionated into <2, >2 and 1-3 mm grades. Data on seed moisture content, bulk density and thousand seed weight were determined. Standard germination tests were carried out and counting was done from day 3 to 9. An analysis of the physical environment revealed that the extreme dry conditions (Temperature~18-42°C, RH%~20-54) which prevail during the period of seed storage may provide opportunity for seed drying. Gradual increases in seed weight, bulk density and thousand seed weight occurred from day 1 to 5 and peaked by 7 days after hard-dough stage. Consistently high germination rates were attained by harvesting at 7 days after hard-dough. The seeds harvested at day 1, 3 and sometimes 5 showed abysmal performances for most vigor traits evaluated. Within 9 months of storage, low germination rate of 53.3-65.8% was recorded. Four varieties, Arrow millet, Bongo short head, Bristle millet and Tongo yellow, which exhibited large seed characteristics consistently showed higher germination rates compared with their counterparts Salma-1, Salma-3, Indiana-05 and Bangbensi millet. Across varieties, large seeds recorded higher germination rates compared with other grades. Seed vigor traits such as incidence of seedling abnormalities and days 3 to 5 leaf stages were positively related to early harvesting and large seed size. © 2011 Academic Journal Inc.
Ayamdoo A.J.,University for Development Studies |
Demuyakor B.,University for Development Studies |
Dogbe W.,Savanna Agricultural Research Institute |
Owusu R.,Savanna Agricultural Research Institute |
Ofosu M.A.,University for Development Studies
American Journal of Food Technology | Year: 2013
As part of research towards enhancing the value chain of parboiled rice in Ghana, a study was conducted to ascertain the ideal parboiling conhtion that optimizes the physical qualities of rice. The study was carried out at the Spanish Laboratory of University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana. Two rice varieties (Nerica 14 and Jasmine 85) were parboiled in the Laboratory at four different conditions (soaking and steaming time combinations) to ascertain the effects of each parboiling condition on the physical qualities of the parboiled rice. A combination of four (4) soaking times (6, 20, 24, 36 h) and three (3) steaming levels (40, 60, 90 min) was used. Samples were also taken from conventional parboiling groups and used as check alongside the control samples. The parboiled rice were milled and physical properties such as milling yeld, Head Rice Yield (HRY), colour, hardness, broken percentage, translucency and gelatinization temperature were evaluated. The results showed that parboiling at 20 to 24 h soaking with 60 min of steaming produced rice with best physical qualities except for colour i.e Wlling yeld was 80%, HRY was 60% and whiteness was 49%. The commercial samples gave values that were close to mehum parboiling. Also ANOVA results showed that soahng and steaming time have direct impact on the final quality of parboiled rice. It was recommended for processors to soak paddy rice for 20 h in warm water between 30 to 40°C followed by steaming for 60 min at 80°C to maximize the physical qualities of parboiled Jasmine 85 and Nerica 14. © 2013 Academic Journals Inc.
Siise A.,Savanna Agricultural Research Institute |
Massawe F.J.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2013
Bambara groundnut an indigenous crop of African origin is drought tolerant and the third most important leguminous crop in Ghana and Sub-Saharan Africa. In order to assess the level of genetic diversity within a small collection of Ghanaian landraces, molecular analysis was performed using microsatellite markers alongside characterization of morphological features. Genetic distance based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient from the SSR marker analysis ranged from 0.48 to 0.9 among the landraces. 80 individual genotypes were clustered into 17 units with substantial levels of inter- and intra-landrace polymorphism. The analyses of variance from the morphological characterization for all quantitative traits were statistically significant (p < 0.05) except for terminal leaflet width. The first 4 principal components accounted for 41.97, 20.15, 13.39 and 9.81 % respectively of the morphological variations among the landraces. Qualitative traits however accounted for less of these variations. The results of the present study support the availability of high level of polymorphism within the collection of bambara groundnut analysed. This report is useful to crop improvement and germplasm conservation of bambara groundnut in Ghana. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.