SAUR

Brié-et-Angonnes, France
Brié-et-Angonnes, France

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The invention relates to a method for treating an aqueous fluid, comprising bringing into contact the aqueous fluid with a fluidised bed of powdered activated carbon, and separating the aqueous fluid from the bed of powdered activated carbon, including a step of managing the fluidised bed of powdered activated carbon. The management step comprises the extraction of a fraction of the fluidised bed of powdered activated carbon in the form of sludge, at least a separation of the sludge extracted in the previous step so as to obtain a fraction having an insoluble index HC1 which is higher than that of the sludge before separation by at least 5 percentage points, and a reinjection of said fraction into the fluidised bed of powdered activated carbon.


Girault R.,IRSTEA | Girault R.,European University of Brittany | Bridoux G.,SAUR | Nauleau F.,SAUR | And 8 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

In this study, the maximum ratio of greasy sluvdge to incorporate with waste activated sludge was investigated in batch and CSTR experiments. In batch experiments, inhibition occurred with a greasy sludge ratio of more than 20-30% of the feed COD. In CSTR experiments, the optimal greasy sludge ratio was 60% of the feed COD and inhibition occurred above a ratio of 80%. Hence, batch experiments can predict the CSTR yield when the degradation phenomenon are additive but cannot be used to determine the maximum ratio to be used in a CSTR configuration. Additionally, when the ratio of greasy sludge increased from 0% to 60% of the feed COD, CSTR methane production increased by more than 60%. When the greasy sludge ratio increased from 60% to 90% of the feed COD, the reactor yield decreased by 75%. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Girault R.,IRSTEA | Girault R.,European University of Brittany | Bridoux G.,SAUR | Nauleau F.,SAUR | And 7 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2012

In this study, a procedure accounting for degradation kinetics was developed to split the total COD of a substrate into each input state variable required for Anaerobic Digestion Model n°1. The procedure is based on the combination of batch experimental degradation tests (" anaerobic respirometry") and numerical interpretation of the results obtained (optimisation of the ADM1 input state variable set). The effects of the main operating parameters, such as the substrate to inoculum ratio in batch experiments and the origin of the inoculum, were investigated. Combined with biochemical fractionation of the total COD of substrates, this method enabled determination of an ADM1-consistent input state variable set for each substrate with affordable identifiability. The substrate to inoculum ratio in the batch experiments and the origin of the inoculum influenced input state variables. However, based on results modelled for a CSTR fed with the substrate concerned, these effects were not significant. Indeed, if the optimal ranges of these operational parameters are respected, uncertainty in COD fractionation is mainly limited to temporal variability of the properties of the substrates. As the method is based on kinetics and is easy to implement for a wide range of substrates, it is a very promising way to numerically predict the effect of design parameters on the efficiency of an anaerobic CSTR. This method thus promotes the use of modelling for the design and optimisation of anaerobic processes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Guo H.,Aix - Marseille University | Wyart Y.,Aix - Marseille University | Perot J.,SAUR | Nauleau F.,SAUR | Moulin P.,Aix - Marseille University
Membrane Water Treatment | Year: 2011

An alternative ultrafiltration membrane integrity test was already developed in laboratory scale. It is based on the use of magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) and measurement of magnetic susceptibility. The mean size of nanoparticles used is around 35 nm and they show a good disparity between 20 and 100 nm. In this paper, validation of this membrane integrity monitoring method was achieved by industrialscale tests. Two holes with 0.6 mm internal diameter in a module containing 10000 fibers (35 m2 surface area) was efficiently detected by injecting 750 mL of 1.7 g.L-1 nanoparticle solution during 2s when the test was operated at low TMP (0.096 bar, corresponding to a flux of 2.2 m3.h-1). In addition, it has been demonstrated that within the detectable range, this membrane integrity test with magnetic nanoparticles has a very rapid response time. The response time depends on the permeate flux and the dead-volume of the pilot. This membrane integrity test, with the advantages of on-line operation, high detection sensitivity, detection specificity and very low influence on membrane fouling, seems to be suitable for large scale drinking water plants.


Mailler R.,University Paris Est Creteil | Gasperi J.,University Paris Est Creteil | Coquet Y.,SAUR | Bulete A.,CNRS Institute of Analytical Sciences | And 11 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

Among the solutions to reduce micropollutant discharges into the aquatic environment, activated carbon adsorption is a promising technique and a large scale pilot has been tested at the Seine Centre (240,000m3/d - Paris, France) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of available works studied fixed bed or contact reactors with a separated separation step, this study assesses a new type of tertiary treatment based on a fluidized bed containing a high mass of activated carbon, continuously renewed. For the first time in the literature, micro-grain activated carbon (μGAC) was studied. The aims were (1) to determine the performances of fluidized bed operating with μCAG on both emerging micropollutants and conventional wastewater quality parameters, and (2) to compare its efficiency and applicability to wastewater to former results obtained with PAC. Thus, conventional wastewater quality parameters (n=11), pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs; n=62) and other emerging pollutants (n=57) have been monitored in μGAC configuration during 13 campaigns.A significant correlation has been established between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), PPHs and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254) removals. This confirms that UV-254 could be used as a tertiary treatment performance indicator to monitor the process. This parameter allowed identifying that the removals of UV-254 and DOC reach a plateau from a μGAC retention time (SRT) of 90-100. days.The μGAC configuration substantially improves the overall quality of the WWTP discharges by reducing biological (38-45%) and chemical oxygen demands (21-48%), DOC (13-44%) and UV-254 (22-48%). In addition, total suspended solids (TSS) are retained by the μGAC bed and a biological activity (nitratation) leads to a total elimination of NO2 -.For micropollutants, PPHs have a good affinity for μGAC and high (>. 60%) or very high (>. 80%) removals are observed for most of the quantified compounds (n = 22/32), i.e. atenolol (92-97%), carbamazepine (80-94%), ciprofloxacin (75-95%), diclofenac (71-97%), oxazepam (74-91%) or sulfamethoxazole (56-83%). In addition, alkylphenols, artificial sweeteners, benzotriazole, bisphenol A, personal care products (triclocarban and parabens) and pesticides have removals lying in the 50 ->. 90% range.Overall, the fluidized bed of μGAC allows obtaining performances comparable to PAC at the same activated carbon dose. Indeed, the average removal of the 13 PPHs found at a high occurrence (>75%) in WWTP discharges is similar at 20g/m3 of μGAC (78-89%) and PAC (85-93%). In addition, this recycled μGAC operation leads to several operational advantages (no FeCl3, reactivable, higher SRT, higher treated flow) and has a stronger impact on the overall wastewater quality compared to PAC. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Connan R.,IRSTEA | Dabert P.,IRSTEA | Khalil H.,IRSTEA | Bridoux G.,SAUR | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2016

The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) consists on the biological conversion of ammonium (NH4 +) into dinitrogen gas under absence of oxygen. Nitrite (NO2 -) is a substrate of the anammox reaction, but also an inhibitor at high concentrations. This study investigates the effect of nitrite on the microbial community during the batch enrichment of anammox sludge. Six inoculums collected from different environments were enriched after a conditioning pretreatment and under controlled conditions during 4 months. Concerning the mineral medium used, two different nitrite supply strategies were applied; i.e., (i) initially low concentration at 25 mg NO2 --N/L and progressive increase to 150 mg NO2 --N/L, and (ii) constant high concentration at 150 mg NO2 --N/L. All tested inoculums developed anammox activity but only when the enrichment was started at low nitrite concentration. In such case, the specific ammonium conversion rates finally obtained ranged from 21 ± 1 to 118 ± 1 mg NH4 +-N/g VS/d (VS, volatile solids). Abundance of the functional gene encoding for the enzyme hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) was assessed using the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) showing positive correlation with the anammox activity finally reported. In addition, high-throughput DNA sequencing helped to elucidate the underlying microbial community dynamics. The raw inoculum source, the conditioning pretreatment, and the cultivation conditions applied were jointly determinants of the final microbial community structure of the enrichments despite a clear convergence at the end of the experimental period. On the other hand, the cultivation conditions alone determined the selection of anammox species belonging to the genus Candidatus Brocadia. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Guo H.,Aix - Marseille University | Wyart Y.,Aix - Marseille University | Perot J.,SAUR | Nauleau F.,SAUR | Moulin P.,Aix - Marseille University
Journal of Membrane Science | Year: 2010

An alternative ultrafiltration membrane integrity test is presented and evaluated, based on the use of magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) and measurement of magnetic susceptibility. The mean size of nanoparticles used is around 35 nm and they show a good disparity between 20 and 100 nm. A series of integrity tests were carried out on a Norit membrane module containing 100 fibers under a low transmembrane pressure of 0.25 bar. The results showed that no magnetic susceptibility was detected in permeate when the tests were performed on the intact module in both cross-flow and dead-end filtration, indicating the complete nanoparticle retention by the intact module. However, when even one fiber was broken in the module (1% breakage rate), magnetic susceptibility of permeate could be detected instantaneously even at feed concentrations as low as 1.2 ppm with Bartington magnetic susceptibility meter. This detection is valid during all the filtration process. The results also showed that the membrane permeability could be completely recovered after a backwash. This membrane integrity test, with the advantages of simplicity, on-line operation, high detection specificity and sensitivity, quick detection and very low influence on membrane fouling, seems to be suitable for large-scale drinking water plants. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Mailler R.,University Paris Est Creteil | Gasperi J.,University Paris Est Creteil | Coquet Y.,SAUR | Deshayes S.,University Paris Est Creteil | And 10 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2015

The efficacy of a fluidized powdered activated carbon (PAC) pilot (CarboPlus®) was studied in both nominal (total nitrification+post denitrification) and degraded (partial nitrification+no denitrification) configuration of the Seine Centre WWTP (Colombes, France). In addition to conventional wastewater parameters 54 pharmaceuticals and hormones (PhPHs) and 59 other emerging pollutants were monitored in influents and effluents of the pilot. Thus, the impacts of the WWTP configuration, the process operation and the physico-chemical properties of the studied compounds were assessed in this article. Among the 26 PhPHs quantified in nominal WWTP configuration influents, 8 have high dissolved concentrations (>100ng/L), 11 have an intermediary concentration (10-100ng/L) and 7 are quantified below 10ng/L. Sulfamethoxazole is predominant (about 30% of the sum of the PhPHs). Overall, 6 PhPHs are poorly to moderately removed (<60%), such as ibuprofen, paracetamol or estrone, while 9 are very well removed (>80%), i.e. beta blockers, carbamazepine or trimethoprim, and 11 are well eliminated (60-80%), i.e. diclofenac, naproxen or sulfamethoxazole. In degraded WWTP configuration, higher levels of organic matter and higher concentrations of most pollutants are observed. Consequently, most PhPHs are substantially less removed in percentages but the removed flux is higher. Thus, the PAC dose required to achieve a given removal percentage is higher in degraded WWTP configuration. For the other micropollutants (34 quantified), artificial sweeteners and phthalates are found at particularly high concentrations in degraded WWTP configuration influents, up to μg/L range. Only pesticides, bisphenol A and parabens are largely eliminated (50-95%), while perfluorinated acids, PAHs, triclosan and sweeteners are not or weakly removed (<50%). The remaining compounds exhibit a very variable fate from campaign to campaign. The fresh PAC dose was identified as the most influencing operation parameter and is strongly correlated to performances. Charge and hydrophobicity of compounds have been recognized as crucial for the micropollutant adsorption on PAC, as well as the molecular weight. Finally, a PAC dose of 10mg/L allows an average removal of 72-80% of the sum of the PhPHs in nominal WWTP configuration. The comparaison of the results with those from the scarce other studies tends to indicate that an extrapolation of them to different PAC processes and to other WWTPs could be possible and relevant, taking into account the differences of water quality from WWTP to WWTP. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | SAUR, SIAAP, CNRS Institute of Analytical Sciences, Lcpp Laboratoire Central Of La Prefecture Of Police and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2015

Among the solutions to reduce micropollutant discharges into the aquatic environment, activated carbon adsorption is a promising technique and a large scale pilot has been tested at the Seine Centre (240,000 m(3)/d - Paris, France) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of available works studied fixed bed or contact reactors with a separated separation step, this study assesses a new type of tertiary treatment based on a fluidized bed containing a high mass of activated carbon, continuously renewed. For the first time in the literature, micro-grain activated carbon (GAC) was studied. The aims were (1) to determine the performances of fluidized bed operating with CAG on both emerging micropollutants and conventional wastewater quality parameters, and (2) to compare its efficiency and applicability to wastewater to former results obtained with PAC. Thus, conventional wastewater quality parameters (n=11), pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs; n=62) and other emerging pollutants (n=57) have been monitored in GAC configuration during 13 campaigns. A significant correlation has been established between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), PPHs and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254) removals. This confirms that UV-254 could be used as a tertiary treatment performance indicator to monitor the process. This parameter allowed identifying that the removals of UV-254 and DOC reach a plateau from a GAC retention time (SRT) of 90-100 days. The GAC configuration substantially improves the overall quality of the WWTP discharges by reducing biological (38-45%) and chemical oxygen demands (21-48%), DOC (13-44%) and UV-254 (22-48%). In addition, total suspended solids (TSS) are retained by the GAC bed and a biological activity (nitratation) leads to a total elimination of NO2(-). For micropollutants, PPHs have a good affinity for GAC and high (>60%) or very high (>80%) removals are observed for most of the quantified compounds (n=22/32), i.e. atenolol (92-97%), carbamazepine (80-94%), ciprofloxacin (75-95%), diclofenac (71-97%), oxazepam (74-91%) or sulfamethoxazole (56-83%). In addition, alkylphenols, artificial sweeteners, benzotriazole, bisphenol A, personal care products (triclocarban and parabens) and pesticides have removals lying in the 50 ->90% range. Overall, the fluidized bed of GAC allows obtaining performances comparable to PAC at the same activated carbon dose. Indeed, the average removal of the 13 PPHs found at a high occurrence (>75%) in WWTP discharges is similar at 20 g/m(3) of GAC (78-89%) and PAC (85-93%). In addition, this recycled GAC operation leads to several operational advantages (no FeCl3, reactivable, higher SRT, higher treated flow) and has a stronger impact on the overall wastewater quality compared to PAC.


PubMed | French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea, Institute of Veille Sanitaire, Center Hospitalier University and SAUR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food and environmental virology | Year: 2016

A hepatitis E outbreak, which occurred on a small isolated island, provided an opportunity to evaluate the association between the number of hepatitis E cases in the community and the concentration of virus detected in sewage. Samples were collected from the different sewage treatment plants from the island and analyzed for the presence of hepatitis E (HEV)virus using real-time RT-PCR. We demonstrated that if 1-4% of inhabitants connected to a WWTP were infected with HEV, raw sewage contained HEV at detectable levels. The finding that such a small number of infected people can contaminate municipal sewage works raises the potential of the further distribution of the virus. Indeed, investigating the routes of transmission of HEV, including the potential for sewage effluent to contain infectious HEV, may help us to better understand the epidemiology of this pathogen, which is considered to be an emerging concern in Europe.

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