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Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Walston S.L.,Oklahoma City University | Al-Omar B.A.,King Saud University | Al-Mutari F.A.,Saudi Ministry of Health
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance | Year: 2010

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe three organizational dimensions that influence hospital patient safety climate, also showing and discussing differences between organizational types. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys were conducted in four types of Saudi Arabian hospitals. Resultant information was analyzed using factor analysis and multiple-regression. Findings: Management support, a proper reporting system and adequate resources were found to influence the hospital patient safety climate. Research limitations/implications: The cross-sectional hospital survey took place in a country that is radically redesigning its healthcare system. Major changes including hospital privatisation and healthcare insurance systems may have significant effects on hospital organizational climates. Originality/value: Improving a hospital's patient safety climate is critical for decreasing errors and providing optimal services. Although much patient safety research has been published, the organizational climate in non-Western countries has not been studied. The paper provides a unique Saudi Arabian hospital perspective and suggests that three dimensions influence the patient safety climate. Hospital managers are encouraged to improve these critical dimensions to positively develop their patient safety climate. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Kelly-Hope L.,Center for Neglected Tropical Diseases | Abdeladhim M.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Al-Zahrani M.H.,Saudi Ministry of Health | Valenzuela J.G.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

The sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi is the vector of Leishmania major, the main causative agent of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Saudi Arabia. Sandflies inject saliva while feeding and the salivary protein PpSP32 was previously shown to be a biomarker for bite exposure. Here we used recombinant PpSP32 to evaluate human exposure to Ph. papatasi bites, and study the association between antibody response to saliva and CL in endemic areas in Saudi Arabia. In this observational study, anti-PpSP32 antibodies, as indicators of exposure to sandfly bites, were measured in sera from healthy individuals and patients from endemic regions in Saudi Arabia with active and cured CL. Ph. papatasi was identified as the primary CL vector in the study area. Anti-PpSP32 antibody levels were significantly higher in CL patients presenting active infections from all geographical regions compared to CL cured and healthy individuals. Furthermore, higher anti-PpSP32 antibody levels correlated with the prevalence and type of CL lesions (nodular vs. papular) observed in patients, especially non-local construction workers. Our findings suggest a possible correlation between the type of immunity generated by the exposure to sandfly bites and disease outcome.

Yezli S.,Bioquell UK Ltd. andover | Memish Z.A.,Saudi Ministry of Health
Journal of Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

Tuberculosis is a serious contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is endemic in many countries. Over the past two decades, there has been an increase in the number of multidrugresistant TB and extensively drug-resistant TB cases around the world. As in many countries, TB is common in Saudi Arabia. The disease is particularly relevant in the Kingdom because of its population dynamics including a large number of resident expatriates mainly from TB endemic regions and the influx of millions of pilgrims to the country each year during the Hajj and Umrah seasons. This review investigates the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance among M. tuberculosis isolates from Saudi Arabia, highlighting the variations in rates in different geographical areas with particularly high rates in the main cities and regions hosting the annual pilgrimage. The review also refers to the measures needed to prevent and control TB transmission in the country. © 2012 Edizioni Scientifiche per l'Informazione su Farmaci e Terapia.

Yezli S.,Bioquell UK Ltd | Shibl A.M.,King Saud University | Livermore D.M.,University of East Anglia | Memish Z.A.,Saudi Ministry of Health
Journal of Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

Several species of Gram-positive cocci are major nosocomial or community pathogens associated with morbidity and mortality. Here, we review the antimicrobial resistance among these pathogens in Saudi Arabia. In the last decades, antimicrobial resistance has increased among Staphylococcus aureus in the Kingdom with a growing prevalence of both nosocomial and community methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. As yet, no vancomycin-resistant MRSA have been reorted, although isolates with reduced susceptibility to the drug have been noted. Currently, the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant entrococci (VRE) is low; however, VRE has been described in the Kingdom as well as Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates with high-level resistance to penicillin, sulfamethoxazole, macrolides, tetracycline, and aminoglycosides. In recent decades, the prevalence and rate of penicillin resistance and non-susceptibility among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates have increased in Saudi Arabia. The organism remains, however, susceptible to other beta-lactams and to quinolones. On the other hand, resistance to co-trimoxazole and tetracyclines is high and resistance to macrolides is on the increase. © 2012 Edizioni Scientifiche per l'Informazione su Farmaci e Terapia.

Yezli S.,Saudi Ministry of Health | Shibl A.M.,King Saud University | Memish Z.A.,Saudi Ministry of Health | Memish Z.A.,Alfaisal University
Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2015

Resistance to β-lactams among Gram-negative bacteria is a worldwide issue. Increased prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producers and the dissemination of carbapenem-resistance genes are particularly concerning. ESBL-producing strains are common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, particularly among the Enterobacteriaceae, and carbapenem resistance is on the increase, especially among the non-fermenters. β-lactamase production is a major mechanism of resistance to these agents and although β-lactamase-producing strains have been documented in the Kingdom, relatively few reports characterized the molecular basis of this production. Nevertheless, available data suggest that CTX-M (CTX-M-15 in particular) is the predominant ESBL in the Enterobacteriaceae, with SHV also being prevalent in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Carbapenem resistance in the latter is mainly due to OXA-48 and NDM-1. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, VEB-like enzymes are the most common ESBLs, and VIM is the prevalent metallo-β-lactamase. OXA-10 extended-spectrum enzymes are also frequent. PER and GES ESBLs have been reported in Acinetobacter baumannii, and oxacillinases (OXA-23 in particular) are the dominant carbapanamases in this species. © 2015 The Authors.

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