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Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

Saudi Aramco , officially the Saudi Arabian Oil Company, most popularly known just as Aramco is a Saudi Arabian national petroleum and natural gas company based in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Aramco's value has been estimated at anywhere between US$1.245 trillion to US$7 trillion. Saudi Aramco has total assets estimated at US$30 trillion, which includes the company's natural gas and oil reserves.Saudi Aramco has both the world's largest proven crude oil reserves, at more than 260 billion barrels , and largest daily oil production. Saudi Aramco owns, operates and develops all energy resources based in Saudi Arabia.Headquartered in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, Saudi Aramco operates the world's largest single hydrocarbon network, the Master Gas System. Its 2013 crude oil production total was 3.4 billion barrels , and it manages over 100 oil and gas fields in Saudi Arabia, including 288.4 trillion standard cubic feet of natural gas reserves. Saudi Aramco operates the Ghawar Field, the world's largest onshore oil field, and the Safaniya Field, the world's largest offshore oil field. Wikipedia.

Kalghatgi G.T.,Saudi Aramco
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute | Year: 2015

Changes in engine technology, driven by the need to increase the efficiency of the SI engine and reduce NOx and soot from diesel engines, and in transport energy demand will have a profound effect on the properties, specifications and production of future fuels. The expected increase in global demand for transport energy is significantly skewed towards heavier fuels like jet fuel and diesel compared to gasoline. Abnormal combustion such as knock and preignition will become more likely as spark-ignition (SI) engines develop to become more efficient and fuel antiknock quality will become more important. In current and future SI engines, for a given RON (research octane number), a fuel of lower MON (motor octane number) has better antiknock quality. Current fuel specifications in several parts of the world assume that MON contributes to antiknock quality and will need to be revised as the mismatch with engine requirements widens. Diesel engines need to maintain efficiency while reducing emissions of soot and NOx. Soot and NOx can be controlled more easily if such engines are run on fuels of extremely low cetane. In the long term compression ignition engines could run on fuels which require less processing in the refinery compared to today's fuels. Such an engine/fuel system could be significantly cheaper and also help mitigate the expected demand imbalance in favour of heavier fuels. The review concludes with a list of issues for combustion science that are relevant to this fuel and engine development. © 2014 The Combustion Institute. Source

The Qusaiba-1 shallow core hole was drilled to a total depth of 551. ft in the northwest of the Buraydah quadrangle in central Saudi Arabia. The sedimentology of the lowermost 320. ft (96.0. m) of core in the core hole is described and interpreted. This includes the entire cored section of Ordovician rocks (294. ft: 88.2. m) as well as the lowest 26. ft (7.8. m) of mudstones of the overlying Silurian Qusaiba Member of the Qalibah Formation. The Ordovician section is represented, from the bottom of the cored interval upwards, by the Quwarah Member of the Qasim Formation, unconformably overlain by three members (introduced here) of the Sarah Formation. These are, in ascending order, the Sarah Sandstone, Baq'a Shale and Baq'a Sandstone members respectively. The Sarah Formation is overlain at 257. ft (Drilled Depth) by the Silurian Qusaiba Member.The Quwarah Member comprises a lower interval (74.2. ft: 22.26. m) and an upper interval (15.6. ft: 4.68. m). The lower interval displays three gross depositional facies, namely (i) grey mudstones with syneresis cracks and interbedded thin sandstones, and a very low Bioturbation Index (BI. =. 0-1), representing deposition in the proximal pro-delta to distal delta-front part of a river-dominated delta, (ii) interbedded sandstones and bioturbated, sandy mudstones with variable BI. =. 2-4, representing distal delta-front deposits in a mixed wave- and river-influenced deltaic setting; and (iii) intensely bioturbated sandy siltstone (BI. =. 5-6), representing delta-lobe abandonment facies in a non-deltaic shallow marine (lower shoreface to offshore) setting. The contact between the lower interval and the upper interval of the Quwarah Member is tentatively identified as a transgressive surface of erosion. The upper interval commences with a thin transgressive pebble-lag deposit that is abruptly overlain by an upward-thickening sequence of sandstones with subordinate mudstones, interpreted as a prograding shoreface sequence.The Sarah Formation rests unconformably upon these shoreface deposits of the Quwarah Member. It commences with the Sarah Sandstone member which displays three gross depositional facies. The lowest part comprises a basal disrupted facies which commences with a pebble conglomerate sitting upon a sharp scoured surface. This is abruptly overlain by a grey-green sandy siltstone characterised by intense disruption manifest in severe brecciation and rotation of bedding with abundant evidence of low angle shear planes with slickensides. This basal disrupted facies is a glaciotectonite that represents the initial advance of the South Polar ice sheets in Arabia at the onset of the late Ordovician (Hirnantian) glaciation. Overlying the basal disrupted facies are thick (85.6. ft: 25.68. m) amalgamated sandstones that comprise the massive sandstone facies of the Sarah Sandstone member of the Sarah Formation. These were deposited by high-density sediment gravity flows. The upper part of the Sarah Sandstone member consists of the structured sandstone facies. This comprises medium to coarse-grained sandstones that display sedimentary structures that are readily identified with a variety of high density sediment gravity flows. These two sandstone facies of the Sarah sandstone member are considered by analogy with similar deposits at outcrop to be the product of subaqueous glacial outwash related to a number of phases of glacial retreat during the Hirnantian glaciation in Saudi Arabia. The Sarah Sandstone member is succeeded by a unit identified here as the Baq'a Shale member of the Sarah Formation. The lower 2.4. ft (0.72. m) of this member is represented by a laminated sandy siltstone. This is characterised by a number of fine-grained sandstone laminae that display an anomalously coarse component of dispersed granules and very coarse sand grains. These rocks are interpreted to be glaciogenic stratified diamictites, representing glacial rainout deposits directly associated with initiation of terminal melting of the Hirnantian ice sheets.The succeeding 55.5. ft (16.65. m) of the Baq'a Shale consists of fissile, silty mudstones that contain an abundance of very thin, very fine-grained sandstones. These display a variety of features characteristic of a range of sediment gravity flows, from low density turbidites to (rare) slurried beds. The sandstone beds display a clear "upward-sanding" sequence, interpreted to represent distal-to-proximal progradation of a prodelta wedge into a brackish, marginal marine embayment. This occurred at a time of ongoing rising sea level and very high rates of deposition related to the continued terminal melting of the Hirnantian ice sheets. The Baq'a Sandstone member is the stratigraphically highest unit of the Sarah Formation. It is 36.5. ft (10.95. m) thick and consists of two distinct sandstone units. The lower of these units comprises fine-grained, well sorted sandstone that appears to be massive (structureless) for the most part. In places faint ripple lamination can be discerned. The textural characteristics of this sandstone unit suggest that it represents the highest part of the upward-sanding sequence identified in the underlying Baq'a Shale, and as such was possibly deposited in a delta-front setting. The upper unit of the Baq'a Sandstone member sits abruptly upon the lower sandstone unit and consists of trough cross-bedded, moderately to poorly sorted, fine- to very coarse-grained sandstone. It represents the abrupt introduction of high energy fluvial deposits over the underlying delta-front sandstones. The contact of these fluvial sandstones with the underlying delta-front deposits is tentatively identified with the isostatic rebound unconformity that has been recognised in outcrop near the town of Baq'a in central Saudi Arabia.The lowermost deposits of the Silurian Qusaiba Member in the Qusaiba-1 core have been identified from palynology in a concurrent study as being early Rhuddanian in age, and occupy the 2.5. ft (0.75. m) thick interval that directly overlies the Sarah Formation (Baq'a Sandstone member). That interval commences with a thin grey mudstone that passes upwards into a sandy, carbonaceous mudstone that is moderately to heavily bioturbated displaying a moderately diverse assemblage of trace fossils. The intensity and diversity of bioturbation diminishes upwards, ultimately becoming represented only by prominent Thalassinoides burrows. These are unlined, with sharp walls and are filled with sandstone that is clearly derived from a thin, overlying sandstone bed that is itself heavily bioturbated. The Thalassinoides burrows are considered to represent a Glossifungites Ichnofacies and therefore indicate a significant hiatus at the base of the thin sandstone bed, at 254.5. ft in the core. This ichnological and sedimentological evidence, combined with the new palynological data supports an early Rhuddanian/mid-Aeronian contact at the base of that sandstone.The uppermost 23.5. ft (7.05. m) of core, between 254.5. ft and 231.0. ft, consist of a thin (1. ft: 0.3. m), basal bioturbated sandstone overlain by grey, fissile, graptolitic mudstones that have been demonstrated to be mid-Aeronian in age. It can be shown that these rocks were deposited in a marine shelf setting. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Kalghatgi G.T.,Saudi Aramco
International Journal of Engine Research | Year: 2014

The demand for transport energy is increasing, but this increase is heavily skewed toward heavier fuels such as diesel and jet fuel while the demand for gasoline might decrease. As spark-ignition engines develop to become more efficient,abnormal combustion such as knock and preignition will become more likely. High antiknock quality fuels,those with high research octane number and preferably low motor octane number, will enable future spark-ignition engines to reach their full potential. Higher fuel antiknock quality is also likely to mitigate "superknock" resulting from preignition-an abnormal combustion problem in turbocharged spark-ignition engines. In many parts of the world, fuelantiknock specifications are set on the assumption that higher motor octane number contributes to increased knock resistance. Specifications for fuel antiknock quality have a great impact on fuels manufacture and will need to be revised as this mismatchbetween existing specifications and engine requirements widens. The primary challenge for diesel engines is to reduce emissions of soot and NOx while maintaining high efficiency, and thisbecomesmucheasierifsuchengines are run on fuels of extremely low cetane. Significant development is needed before such engines can be seen onpractical vehicles. In the long term, compression ignition engines are likely to use fuels with research octane number in the range of 70-85 (cetane number< ~30) but with no strict requirements on volatility. Such fuels would require less processingin the refinery than today's fuels. Such an engine/fuels system will be at least as efficient as today's diesel engine but could be significantly cheaper and also open a path to mitigate the imbalance in demand growth between heavy an light fuels that is expected to arise otherwise. The review concludes with a possible long-term fuel scenario. ©IMechE 2014. Source

Sibai F.N.,Saudi Aramco
IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems | Year: 2012

This paper introduces the Spidergon-Donut (SD) on-chip interconnection network for interconnecting 1,000 cores in future MPSoCs and CMPs. Unlike the Spidergon network, the SD network which extends the Spidergon network into the second dimension, significantly reduces the network diameter, well below the popular 2D Mesh and Torus networks for one extra node degree and roughly 25 percent more links. A detailed construction of the SD network and a method to reshuffle the SD network's nodes for layout onto the 2D plane, and simple one-to-one and broadcast routing algorithms for the SD network are presented. The various configurations of the SD network are analyzed and compared including detailed area and delay studies. To interconnect a thousand cores, the paper concludes that a hybrid version of the SD network with smaller SD instances interconnected by a crossbar is a feasible low-diameter network topology for interconnecting the cores of a thousand core system. © 2006 IEEE. Source

A model which enables dynamic analysis of flexibly coupled misaligned shafts is presented. The model is setup to account for both angular and parallel misalignment in the presence of mass unbalance and incorporates a coupling having angular, torsional and axial flexibility. Among the important features is the ability to simulate both nonlinear bearing stiffness and coupling angular-stiffness anisotropy. The equations of motion are derived for the linear system, extended to include nonlinear bearing effects and subsequently transformed into non-dimensional form for general application. A series of numerical analyses are performed and the influence of important system parameters assessed thereby providing insight to the resulting static and dynamic forces and motions. Angular and parallel misalignments are shown to produce fundamentally different system response. It is found that the static preload induced by both types of misalignment can play a key role in producing complex vibration resulting from it's interaction with rotating-element anisotropy and bearing nonlinear properties. Bearing static forces are altered and rotating elements are subjected to alternating forces which could affect fatigue life. Bearing forces can be further modified by the application of transmitted torque. The potential for great variability in system response is shown to exist due to the participation of numerous influential variables. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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