Li L.,Sate Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause |
Li L.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental Science |
Huang C.,Sate Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause |
Huang C.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental Science |
And 21 more authors.
A high PM2.5 pollution episode was detected in Shanghai in November 2010. The integrated process rate method, an advanced diagnostic tool, was applied to account for the contribution of different atmospheric processes during the high pollution episode in the Yangtze River Delta region (YRD). The PM2.5 process analysis indicates that the emission of fine particles is the dominant source of high surface PM2.5 concentrations in the major cities of the YRD like Shanghai, Nanjing, and Hangzhou, following horizontal transportation and aerosols. The PM2.5 concentration could be reduced due to vertical advection and diffusion from lower levels to the upper air. The aerosols process such as homogeneous nucleation and condensation producing PM2.5 occurs throughout the PBL layer in urban areas, causing vertical transport from upper levels down to the surface layer. The aerosols process is much more significant in a downwind rural and coastal site like Zhoushan than in the urban areas. The PM2.5 change initiated by both horizontal transport and vertical transport is much stronger at 40-2000m height than in the surface layer, while the PM2.5 change caused by horizontal diffusion is very small. Dry deposition can significantly reduce concentration of the particulates in the surface level of the atmosphere, and wet deposition can remove the particles in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The cloud processes can either increase PM2.5 due to the aqueous-phase oxidation of SO2 and NO2 or remove PM2.5 due to cloud scavenging. Solar radiation and humidity are more important to secondary pollution, and they are the significant external factors affecting the chemical reactions among sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, volatile compounds and fine particles. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source