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Joutsa J.,University of Turku | Joutsa J.,Satakunta Central Hospital | Gardberg M.,University of Turku | Roytta M.,University of Turku | Kaasinen V.,University of Turku
Parkinsonism and Related Disorders | Year: 2014

Movement disorder specialists can achieve a high level of accuracy when clinically diagnosing parkinsonism syndromes. However, data about the diagnostic accuracy among general neurologists is limited. Objectives: This study investigated the recent diagnostic accuracy of parkinsonism syndromes by general neurologists. Methods: A retrospective examination of 1362 post-mortem cases diagnosed in the years 2000-2012 by neuropathologists was performed. Out of these cases, we identified 111 patients who received a clinical parkinsonism diagnosis during life and 122 patients who received a neuropathological diagnosis of a parkinsonism syndrome post-mortem including 11 incidental cases. Results: Fifty-eight (75.3%) of the 77 patients who had received clinical Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnoses were confirmed after the neuropathological examination. The sensitivity of the clinical diagnosis for idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) was 89.2% and the specificity was 57.8%. The corresponding numbers for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) were 52.9% and 100%, and for multiple system atrophy (MSA) were 64.3% and 99.0%, respectively. Conclusions: Parkinson's disease is heavily overdiagnosed by general neurologists, whereas parkinsonism plus syndromes are underdiagnosed. Despite improvements in the diagnostic methods during recent decades and the development of diagnostic clinical criteria for parkinsonian syndromes, the diagnostic accuracy of Parkinson's disease remains relatively low, and 1/4 of diagnoses are incorrect. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Mattila E.,University of Helsinki | Uusitalo-Seppala R.,Satakunta Central Hospital | Wuorela M.,Turku City Hospital | Lehtola L.,Maria Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Gastroenterology | Year: 2012

Background & Aims: Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with antibiotics leads to recurrences in up to 50% of patients. We investigated the efficacy of fecal transplantation in treatment of recurrent CDI. Methods: We reviewed records from 70 patients with recurrent CDI who had undergone fecal transplantation. Fecal transplantation was performed at colonoscopy by infusing fresh donor feces into cecum. Before transplantation, the patients had whole-bowel lavage with polyethylene glycol solution. Clinical failure was defined as persistent or recurrent symptoms and signs, and a need for new therapy. Results: During the first 12 weeks after fecal transplantation, symptoms resolved in all patients who did not have strain 027 C difficile infections. Of 36 patients with 027 C difficile infection, 32 (89%) had a favorable response; all 4 nonresponders had a pre-existing serious condition, caused by a long-lasting diarrheal disease or comorbidity and subsequently died of colitis. During the first year after transplantation, 4 patients with an initial favorable response had a relapse after receiving antibiotics for unrelated causes; 2 were treated successfully with another fecal transplantation and 2 with antibiotics for CDI. Ten patients died of unrelated illnesses within 1 year after transplantation. No immediate complications of fecal transplantation were observed. Conclusions: Fecal transplantation through colonoscopy seems to be an effective treatment for recurrent CDI and also for recurrent CDI caused by the virulent C difficile 027 strain. © 2012 AGA Institute.


Hynninen J.,University of Turku | Lavonius M.,University of Turku | Oksa S.,Satakunta Central Hospital | Grenman S.,University of Turku | And 2 more authors.
Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2013

Objective: Most cases of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are diagnosed in an advanced stage. When the disease has spread intra-abdominally, complete surgical tumor debulking is the single most important prognostic factor. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) before surgery can cause fibrosis and adhesions in the peritoneal cavity and may interfere with the perioperative evaluation of tumor spread. In this prospective study, we evaluated whether perioperative visual assessment of tumor dissemination is similar in patients undergoing primary and interval surgery for EOC. Methods: Systematic visual evaluation of tumor spread was performed at the start of primary surgery/diagnostic laparoscopy (n = 39) or interval surgery (n = 16). Peritoneal cavity was divided into 22 anatomical regions. The carefully documented results of the visual assessment were compared with the histopathological analysis of 220 biopsies from primary and 92 biopsies from interval surgery. Results: In primary surgery, perioperative visual estimation of tumor spread showed 98% sensitivity, 76% specificity and 95% accuracy compared to histopathology. The corresponding figures after NACT were 86%, 76% and 84%, respectively. The difference in sensitivity and accuracy in primary and interval operations was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In advanced EOC, microscopically carcinomatous areas have a benign visual appearance more often after NACT than at primary surgery. NACT may interfere with the perioperative visual evaluation of tumor spread and thus lead to incomplete resection of tumor in potentially resectable areas. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Background Recurrent TaT1 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients should be treated with immediate instillation of chemotherapy after transurethral resection of bladder tumour followed by instillation therapy. Objective To present long-term results of a study exploring the effect of initial mitomycin C (MMC) instillations followed by two types of immunotherapy for patients with frequently recurring NMIBC. Design, setting, and participants Between 1992 and 1996, 236 patients with frequently recurring TaT1 grade 1-2 NMIBC were enrolled in the prospective randomised multicentre FinnBladder-4 study. Intervention One perioperative plus four weekly instillations of MMC followed by monthly bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) or alternating BCG and interferon (IFN)-α2b instillations for up to 1 yr. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Primary end points were time to first recurrence and time to progression. Secondary end points were disease-specific mortality and overall survival. The principal statistical methods were the proportional subdistribution hazards model and Cox proportional hazards model plus cumulative incidence and Kaplan-Meier analyses. Results and limitations The median follow-up was 10.3 yr (maximum: 19.8 yr) in the MMC-BCG group and 8.6 yr (maximum: 19.8 yr) in the MMC-BCG/IFN group. The probability of recurrence was significantly lower in the MMC-BCG group than in the MMC-BCG/IFN group (43% vs 78% at 10 yr and 45% vs 80% at 15 yr, respectively; hazard ratio: 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.98-4.13; p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the probability of progression, disease-free mortality, or overall survival. Conclusions Perioperative plus four weekly MMC instillations followed by monthly BCG, instead of alternating BCG and IFN-α2b instillations, significantly reduce long-term recurrence. Patient summary We demonstrated in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients with exceptionally frequent recurrences that the risk of long-term recurrence was reduced from 78-80% to 43-45% if one perioperative plus four weekly mitomycin C instillations were followed by monthly bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillations for 1 yr instead of alternating instillations of BCG and interferon-α2b. Trial registration The registration was not considered necessary at this stage of the follow-up because the study was initiated as early as in 1992 and the last randomisation took place in 1996, before the current requirements concerning study registrations were implemented. © 2015 European Association of Urology.


Lehto J.,University of Turku | Gunn J.,University of Turku | Karjalainen P.,Satakunta Central Hospital | Airaksinen J.,University of Turku | Kiviniemi T.,University of Turku
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery | Year: 2015

Objectives Postpericardiotomy syndrome is a well-known complication after cardiac surgery. Nevertheless, little is known about the incidence and predictors of postpericardiotomy syndrome requiring medical attention or hospitalization in a contemporary set of patients undergoing isolated coronary bypass. Methods This retrospective analysis included 688 patients from 2008 to 2010. The median follow-up time was 5.3 [4.5-6.0] years. Results The incidence of postpericardiotomy syndrome was 61 of 688 patients (8.9%), and the median time to diagnosis was 21 [11-52] days, but only 13 patients (22%) required pleural drainage and 3 patients (4.9%) required pericardiocentesis. Patients with postpericardiotomy syndrome more often had 1 or more red blood cell units transfused (61% vs 43%, P = .008) after surgery and less often had diabetes (12% vs 31% P = .002) or metformin medication (3.3% vs 20%, P = .001) compared with those without postpericardiotomy syndrome. In multivariable Cox regression model, renal insufficiency and 1 or more red blood cell units transfused remained as independent predictors of postpericardiotomy syndrome and diabetes remained as a protective factor. Incidence of recurrences was high (38%), and increasing body mass index was the only predictor of relapse. Conclusions The incidence of symptomatic postpericardiotomy syndrome leading to medical care contact was markedly lower compared with that reported in older clinical studies. Postpericardiotomy syndrome was associated with the use of red blood cell units and was less common in patients with medically treated diabetes. © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery.


Kellokumpu-Lehtinen P.-L.,University of Tampere | Harmenberg U.,Karolinska University Hospital | Joensuu T.,University of Helsinki | McDermott R.,Cooperative Oncology Research Group ICORG | And 16 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: Docetaxel administered every 3 weeks is a standard treatment for castration-resistant advanced prostate cancer. We hypothesised that 2-weekly administration of docetaxel would be better tolerated than 3-weekly docetaxel in patients with castration-resistant advanced prostate cancer, and did a prospective, multicentre, randomised, phase 3 study to compare efficacy and safety. Methods: Eligible patients had advanced prostate cancer (metastasis, a prostate-specific-antigen test result of more than 10·0 ng/mL, and WHO performance status score of 0-2), had received no chemotherapy (except with estramustine), had undergone surgical or chemical castration, and had been referred to a treatment centre in Finland, Ireland, or Sweden. Enrolment and treatment were done between March 1, 2004, and May 31, 2009. Randomisation was done centrally and stratified by centre and WHO performance status score of 0-1 vs 2. Patients were assigned 75 mg/m2 docetaxel intravenously on day 1 of a 3-week cycle, or 50 mg/m2 docetaxel intravenously on days 1 and 15 of a 4-week cycle. 10 mg oral prednisolone was administered daily to all patients. The primary endpoint was time to treatment failure (TTTF). We assessed data in the per-protocol population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00255606. Findings: 177 patients were randomly assigned to the 2-weekly docetaxel group and 184 to the 3-weekly group. 170 patients in the 2-weekly group and 176 in the 3-weekly group were included in the analysis. The 2-weekly administration was associated with significantly longer TTTF than was 3-weekly administration (5·6 months, 95% CI 5·0-6·2 vs 4·9 months, 4·5-5·4; hazard ratio 1·3, 95% CI 1·1-1·6, p=0·014). Grade 3-4 adverse events occurred more frequently in the 3-weekly than in the 2-weekly administration group, including neutropenia (93 [53%] vs 61 [36%]), leucopenia (51 [29%] vs 22 [13%]), and febrile neutropenia (25 [14%] vs six [4%]). Neutropenic infections were reported more frequently in patients who received docetaxel every 3 weeks (43 [24%] vs 11 [6%], p=0·002). Interpretation: Administration of docetaxel every 2 weeks seems to be well tolerated in patients with castration-resistant advanced prostate cancer and could be a useful option when 3-weekly single-dose administration is unlikely to be tolerated. Funding: Sanofi. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Airaksinen K.E.J.,University of Turku | Gronberg T.,University of Turku | Nuotio I.,University of Turku | Nikkinen M.,Kuopio University Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Objectives This study sought to explore the incidence and risk factors of thromboembolic complications after cardioversion of acute atrial fibrillation. Background Anticoagulation therapy is currently recommended after cardioversion of acute atrial fibrillation in patients with risk factors for stroke, but the implementation of these new consensus-based guidelines has been slow. Methods A total of 7,660 cardioversions were performed in 3,143 consecutive patients with atrial fibrillation lasting <48 h in 3 hospitals. For this analysis, embolic complications were evaluated during the 30 days after 5,116 successful cardioversions in 2,481 patients with neither oral anticoagulation nor peri-procedural heparin therapy. Results There were 38 (0.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5% to 1.0%) definite thromboembolic events (31 strokes) within 30 days (median 2 days, mean 4.6 days) after cardioversion. In addition, 4 patients suffered transient ischemic attack after cardioversion. Age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.08), female sex (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.0), heart failure (OR: 2.9; 95% CI: 1.1 to 7.2), and diabetes (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.9) were the independent predictors of definite embolic events. Classification tree analysis showed that the highest risk of thromboembolism (9.8%) was observed among patients with heart failure and diabetes, whereas patients with no heart failure and age <60 years had the lowest risk of thromboembolism (0.2%). Conclusions The incidence of post-cardioversion thromboembolic complications is high in certain subgroups of patients when no anticoagulation is used after cardioversion of acute atrial fibrillation. (Safety of Cardioversion of Acute Atrial Fibrillation [FinCV]; NCT01380574). © 2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.


Karjalainen P.P.,Satakunta Central Hospital | Nammas W.,Satakunta Central Hospital
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2012

Optical coherence tomography is an exciting light-based imaging modality with a much higher axial resolution as compared with intravascular ultrasound. The diagnostic value of optical coherence tomography resides in its ability to provide information on the stent interaction with the vessel wall at the level of individual struts. Chief clinical implications include evaluating strut neointimal coverage and strut malapposition following coronary stenting. This Editorial covers the basics of optical coherence tomography, its established and potential clinical implications, probable caveats and downsides, in addition to a future perspective, all in view of the late-breaking peer-reviewed literature. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Incomplete stent endothelialization is associated with late and very late stent thrombosis. In a post hoc analysis of the BASE-ACS trial, we sought to assess neointimal coverage and coronary flow reserve (CFR) 9 months after implantation of titanium-nitride-oxide-coated bioactive stents (BAS) versus everolimus-eluting stents (EES) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In the BASE-ACS trial, 827 patients with ACS were randomized to receive either BAS or EES. In the current study, we examined neointimal growth and strut coverage by optical coherence tomography and CFR by trans-thoracic echocardiography in 28 consecutive non-diabetic patients with the culprit lesion in the left anterior descending coronary artery. The primary endpoints were binary stent strut coverage and CFR at 9-month follow-up. A total of 13 patients were included in the BAS group (2,033 struts); 15 in the EES group (2,898 struts). Binary stent strut coverage was higher and malapposed struts lower with BAS versus EES (99.4 vs 89.2, and 0.2 vs 4.6 %, respectively, p < 0.001 for both). Neointimal hyperplasia thickness was greater with BAS versus EES (274.2 vs 100.1 μm, respectively, p < 0.001). CFR was lower with EES versus BAS (2.2 ± 0.8 vs 3.0 ± 0.5, respectively, p = 0.001). Abnormal CFR (<2.5) were detected in 10 patients in the EES group versus one in the BAS group (p = 0.002). The current study demonstrated that in patients with ACS, BAS resulted in improved neointimal stent strut coverage and better coronary vasodilator function as compared with EES at 9-month follow-up. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Kokki M.,Kuopio University Hospital | Sjovall S.,Satakunta Central Hospital | Keinanen M.,Kuopio University Hospital | Kokki H.,Kuopio University Hospital
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia | Year: 2013

Background Postdural puncture headache is common in parturients following lumbar puncture. If headache is severe and persistent, an epidural blood patch is recommended. In this paper we reviewed the efficacy of epidural blood patches over a 13-year period at two hospitals in Finland with a particular emphasis on its timing. Methods The hospitals' databases were searched to identify parturients who underwent an epidural blood patch from March 1998 to June 2011. Parturients' records were reviewed to establish the characteristics and associated symptoms of headache and the effectiveness of the epidural blood patch. Results A total of 129 parturients received 151 epidural blood patches. These followed spinal (n = 49), epidural (n = 47) or combined spinal-epidural blocks (n = 33). The success rate of the first procedure was 89%, with permanent relief in 76%. The first procedure provided permanent relief of postdural puncture headache for 86% of 78 patients having the procedure after 48 h, compared to 65% of 37 patients when it was performed between 24 and 48 h, and 50% of 14 patients with the procedure within the first 24 h after dural puncture (P = 0.003). A second procedure was performed for 22 parturients due to incomplete relief (n = 5) or recurrent symptoms (n = 17); all had complete resolution of symptoms. Conclusions Epidural blood patch performed later than 48 h following lumbar puncture or accidental dural puncture is effective in parturients with postdural puncture symptoms. The recurrence rate of symptoms after an initially successful epidural blood patch is high, and therefore patients should be provided with counselling and contact information. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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