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Peltonen-Sainio P.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Jauhiainen L.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Laitinen P.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Salopelto J.,Hankkija Maatalous Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Soil Use and Management | Year: 2011

Tap-rooted rapeseed is generally considered sensitive to soil compaction. We examined 473 Finnish rapeseed fields sown in 2007 to 2009 to both spring turnip rape Brassica rapa L. (dominant crop) and oilseed rape Brassica napus L. Roots were rated late in the growing season according to penetration capacity. Roots in each field were rated from G1 (no problems with root penetration) to G5 (failure to penetrate deeper soil layers). There were significant effects of year, crop species, soil type, special soil properties and soil cultivation methods on frequency of G1 and G4+5 roots. Restricted root penetration was a common phenomenon. Typically, fields had <30% G3 and G4+5 roots, however, some fields had >70% G4+5 roots and were cases for serious concern. Yield loss was linearly related to the incidence of G4+5 plants in 2007, but there was no relationship with the other years. Oilseed rape had a greater proportion of G4+5 roots than turnip rape and twice the proportion of G4+5 roots occurred in direct-drilled fields than in reduced or fully tilled fields. Rapeseed yield decline may at least partly be related to poor root penetration and it is a useful indicator crop to demonstrate the degree of soil compaction and should be cultivated in fields where sufficient root penetration is possible. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 British Society of Soil Science. Source

Salonen J.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Laitinen P.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Saastamoinen M.,Satafood Development Association | Salopelto J.,Hankkija Maatalous Ltd.
Agricultural and Food Science | Year: 2011

A survey of weeds in spring-sown oilseed crops (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera and Brassica napus ssp. oleifera) was conducted in southern and central Finland during 2007-2009, representing the first such extensive investigation in the country. The occurrence of the most abundant weed species in oilseeds was surveyed in 429 fields. In the fields with moderate or high weed infestation, 1-6 harmful weed species were recorded by visual observation according to their biomass production. About 40 weed species were recorded, the most predominant being Chenopodium album, Galeopsis spp., Galium spurium, Sonchus arvensis and Tripleurospermum inodorum. Elymus repens was the only major grass weed. Chemical weed control of broad-leaved weeds had been practised in 53% of the fields, resulting in relatively good control. In addition, both selective graminicides and glyphosate were used to control E. repens. Mechanical weed control was not practised in any field. The crop yield level was about 300 kg ha -1 higher in the fields with low weed infestation compared with in the highly infested fields. New promising options to replace the banned herbicide trifluralin are available. Thus, the most harmful weeds, such as C. album, which interferes with the production of high-quality oil for human consumption, can still be effectively controlled. © Agricultural and Food Science. Source

Saastamoinen M.,Satafood Development Association | Pihlava J.-M.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Eurola M.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Klemola A.,Satafood Development Association | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural and Food Science | Year: 2013

Linseed varieties were studied in variety trials and under farm conditions in south-western Finland in the years 2007-2010. The variation in yield, oil, protein, SDG lignan, cadmium and lead contents were studied in 8 oil and 2 fibre linseed varieties. Genotypic, environmental and genotype x environment interaction variance estimates were calculated. Fibre varieties 'Belinka' and 'Martta' had higher protein and lower oil contents than oil linseed varieties. The SDG lignan contents of linseed varieties varied between 3635-9560 mg kg-1. Rather high genotypic variance was found in yield, oil, protein and SDG lignan contents. 'Abacus', 'Helmi' and 'Martta' had the highest SDG lignan contents while 'Laser' had a lower SDG lignan content. Variation in cadmium and lead contents was caused by environmental effects. The highest cadmium contents, 0.82-1.69 mg kg-1, were found in soils fertilized by wastewater sludge about 20 years ago and at fields with low bottom soil pH (4.1-4.5). Source

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