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Saskatoon, Canada

Sakiyan O.,Selcuk University | Sumnu G.,Middle East Technical University | Sahin S.,Middle East Technical University | Meda V.,University of Saskatchewan | And 2 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2011

The main objective of the study was to determine the effects of different baking ovens and different cake formulations on the degree of starch gelatinization during cake baking. Baking was performed in microwave, infrared-microwave combination, and conventional ovens. Starch gelatinization levels of fat free, 25% fat, and 25% Simplesse™-containing cake samples were examined using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and rapid visco analyzer (RVA). Both DSC and RVA results showed that increasing baking time increased gelatinization level for all baking types significantly. It was also found that the effect of fat content on starch gelatinization was different depending on the type of baking. Addition of fat reduced the degree of starch gelatinization in conventional baking. However, fat enhanced the gelatinization in microwave and infrared-microwave combination ovens. Usage of Simplesse™ as a fat replacer decreased the starch gelatinization in all types of baking significantly. There was insufficient starch gelatinization in microwave-baked cakes in which the degree of gelatinization ranged from 55% to 78% depending on formulation. On the other hand, it ranged from 85% to 93% in conventionally baked cakes. Combining infrared with microwaves increased degree of starch gelatinization (70-90%). © 2009 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

Chaban B.,University of Saskatchewan | Albert A.,Womens Health Research Institute | Links M.G.,University of Saskatchewan | Links M.G.,Saskatoon Research Center | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The upper respiratory tract microbiome has an important role in respiratory health. Influenza A is a common viral infection that challenges that health, and a well-recognized sequela is bacterial pneumonia. Given this connection, we sought to characterize the upper respiratory tract microbiota of individuals suffering from the pandemic H1N1 influenza A outbreak of 2009 and determine if microbiome profiles could be correlated with patient characteristics. We determined the microbial profiles of 65 samples from H1N1 patients by cpn60 universal target amplification and sequencing. Profiles were examined at the phylum and nearest neighbor "species" levels using the characteristics of patient gender, age, originating health authority, sample type and designation (STAT/non-STAT). At the phylum level, Actinobacteria-, Firmicutes- and Proteobacteria-dominated microbiomes were observed, with none of the patient characteristics showing significant profile composition differences. At the nearest neighbor "species" level, the upper respiratory tract microbiomes were composed of 13-20 "species" and showed a trend towards increasing diversity with patient age. Interestingly, at an individual level, most patients had one to three organisms dominant in their microbiota. A limited number of discrete microbiome profiles were observed, shared among influenza patients regardless of patient status variables. To assess the validity of analyses derived from sequence read abundance, several bacterial species were quantified by quantitative PCR and compared to the abundance of cpn60 sequence read counts obtained in the study. A strong positive correlation between read abundance and absolute bacterial quantification was observed. This study represents the first examination of the upper respiratory tract microbiome using a target other than the 16S rRNA gene and to our knowledge, the first thorough examination of this microbiome during a viral infection. © 2013 Chaban et al.

Kaddour R.,Tunis el Manar University | Sellami N.,Tunis el Manar University | Chennaoui H.,Tunis el Manar University | Nasri N.,Tunis el Manar University | And 6 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Sulla constitutes an important genetic resource contributing to pastoral production, particularly in semi-arid regions. In Tunisia, seedlings of the southern species Sulla carnosa (Desf.) and the northern species Sulla coronaria (L.) were treated with NaCl (0, 100 and 200 mM) for 27 days. Salt treatments decreased leaf dry matter more in S. carnosa than in S. coronaria. S. coronaria accumulated less Na + and greater amounts of K + and showed greater K/Na selectivity, a trait which could be related to the maintenance of higher net K + uptake and transport in the presence of NaCl. Pigments were severely affected by salt stress in leaves of S. carnosa when compared with leaves of S. coronaria. In addition to these physiological characterisations, genetic diversity was measured between the two accessions using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Three ISSR primers generated a total of 63 DNA amplicons for S. carnosa and 64 DNA amplicons for S. coronaria, all of which were polymorphic between the two accessions. Correlations between the molecular and physiological data revealed statistically significant correlations between the salt response of these two Sulla accessions and two molecular markers B340 and B860, in roots and shoots, respectively. S. coronaria showed greater salt tolerance on the basis of growth and K/Na selectivity, making it a good candidate for inclusion in a future breeding programme. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Chaban B.,University of Saskatchewan | Links M.G.,University of Saskatchewan | Links M.G.,Saskatoon Research Center | Hill J.E.,University of Saskatchewan
Microbial Ecology | Year: 2012

Members of the rare microbiome can be important components of complex microbial communities. For example, pet dog ownership is a known risk factor for human campylobacteriosis, and Campylobacter is commonly detected in dog feces by targeted assays. However, these organisms have not been detected by metagenomic methods. The goal of this study was to characterize fecal microbiota from healthy and diarrheic pet dogs using two different levels of molecular detection. PCR amplification and pyrosequencing of the universal cpn60 gene target was used to obtain microbial profiles from each dog. To investigate the relatively rare epsilon-proteobacteria component of the microbiome, a molecular enrichment was carried out using a PCR that first amplified the cpn10-cpn60 region from epsilon-proteobacteria, followed by universal cpn60 target amplification and pyrosequencing. From the non-enriched survey, the major finding was a significantly higher proportion of Bacteroidetes, notably Bacteroides vulgatus, in healthy dogs compared to diarrheic dogs. Epsilon-proteobacteria from the genera Helicobacter and Campylobacter were also detected at a low level in the non-enriched profiles of some dogs. Molecular enrichment increased the proportion of epsilon-proteobacteria sequences detected from each dog, as well as identified novel, presumably rare sequences not seen in the non-enriched profiles. Enriched profiles contained known species of Arcobacter, Campylobacter, Flexispira, and Helicobacter and identified two possibly novel species. These findings add to our understanding of the canine fecal microbiome in general, the epsilon-proteobacteria component specifically, and present a novel modification to traditional metagenomic approaches for study of the rare microbiome. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Dai M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Dai M.,Chongqing Medical University | Hamel C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Bainard L.D.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 5 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Improving technologies and the challenge of producing more bio-products while reducing the environmental footprint of humans are shifting paradigms in agricultural research. Harnessing the microbial resources of arable soils is a new avenue to improve the efficiency of nutrient use in agriculture. The objective of this study was to define how crop management influences the contribution of resident AM fungi to nutrient efficiency and crop productivity. The AM fungal communities of 72 organically and 78 conventionally managed wheat fields of the Canadian prairie were described by 454 pyrosequencing and related to crop productivity and N and P use efficiency. Conventional management reduces soil pH and increases the fluxes of all soil nutrients except S, B, and K. Organic management increased the abundance of Claroideoglomus reads. The efficiency of N and P uptake from soil by organic wheat was 2.3 and 1.8 times higher than that of conventional systems. This high N and P uptake efficiency in organic wheat crops was mainly attributable to the low soil fertility of organic fields, as wheat biomass production was 1.44 times greater in conventional than organic systems. Overall, the amounts of N and P taken up by conventional and organic wheat crops were similar. Plant nutrient balance and the abundance of Paraglomus drove conventional wheat production, whereas organic production depended mainly on soil moisture, plant nutrient balance, and abundance of Glomus, which was associated with reduced and nutrient-inefficient wheat production. The high nutrient concentrations at maturity and the low productivity of organic wheat fit a model of limiting CO2-assimilation. The trade-off between nutrient use efficiency and productivity in low input wheat production could be relieved by reducing the abundance of Glomus species, increasing soil moisture and early N availability, or by improving the inherent CO2 assimilation capacity of wheat. © 2014.

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