Greig J.D.,Public Health Agency of Canada |
Waddell L.,Public Health Agency of Canada |
Waddell L.,University of Guelph |
Wilhelm B.,Public Health Agency of Canada |
And 8 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2012
Results from primary processing intervention strategies for . Escherichia coli reduction on beef carcasses are often inconsistent or contradictory.Our objective was to identify, critically evaluate and synthesize published intervention research reporting treatment efficacy at the abattoir on . E. coli contamination of beef carcasses using systematic review (SR)-meta-analysis (MA) methodology to recommend effective practices and determine knowledge gaps.Four electronic bibliographic databases were searched for intervention studies in English. Two independent reviewers performed all SR steps. Risk of bias was assessed and separate random-effects MAs conducted on datasets. A stochastic simulation model using MA effect estimates evaluated combined effects of potable water carcass wash, steam or hot water pasteurization and a 24. h dry chill.The SR-MA included 36 citations (202 trials). Although 44 interventions were identified at nine stages of processing, MA was precluded for most due to small study numbers, high risk of bias and heterogeneity. Reduced odds of generic . E. coli carcass contamination demonstrated by MA: final carcass washing (OR 0.56, CI: 0.41-0.77), pasteurization (OR 0.09, CI: 0.06-0.14) and 24. h dry chilling (OR 0.17, CI: 0.11-0.24). Combining effects of potable water carcass wash, steam or hot water pasteurization and a 24. h dry chill, assuming no additional contamination and all variables constant, resulted in a reduced prevalence of 1.22% (CI 0.17, 3.57). The predicted risk difference in carcass contamination was 14, 42 and 35 per 100 carcasses upon application of final wash, carcass pasteurization and 24. h dry chill, respectively.Existing research indicates that final wash, hot water or steam pasteurization, and dry chilling are beneficial for reducing the contamination of beef carcasses with generic . E. coli and potentially pathogenic strains. © 2012 .
Swallow R.,Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases | Year: 2012
The paper discusses the risk for an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the Pacific NortWest Economic Region (PNWER). Topics examined throughout the paper include: why PNWER is vulnerable to FMD, risks to Canada and the U.S. for the introduction of FMD, response strategies, and preventative measures. These topics will identify a number of challenges that region will face if an outbreak were to occur including illegal trade, movement of people, livestock movements, vaccination, and zoning. There is also a discussion in these topics around potential strategies that could be used on both sides of the border to minimize the impact of an outbreak both from an animal welfare perspective and from a trade and economic perspective. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Tusevljak N.,University of Guelph |
Tusevljak N.,Public Health Agency of Canada |
Rajic A.,University of Guelph |
Rajic A.,Public Health Agency of Canada |
And 12 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2012
Increased reliance on seafood has brought to light concerns regarding food safety, but the information to inform risk assessment or surveillance needs is lacking. A scoping study (ScS) was conducted to characterize published research investigating selected zoonotic bacteria and public health topics in various wild and farmed aquatic species and seafood. This was followed by a systematic review (SR) on selected bacteria (Aeromonas spp., generic Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Vibrio spp.) and aquatic species (clams, mussels, oysters, salmon, and shrimp [including prawn]); a meta-analysis (MA) was conducted only at the retail level due to considerable variability among various pathogen/seafood combinations. The ScS revealed the most frequently investigated themes were farm-level prevalence and intervention research for Vibrio spp. and Aeromonas spp. Antimicrobial use (AMU) and the association between AMU and antimicrobial resistance were rarely investigated. The SR indicated a consistent lack of reporting regarding study methodology and results, precluding the use of many studies in and full benefits of MA. MA of Aeromonas, E. coli, and Salmonella prevalence in retail salmon resulted in pooled estimates of 13% (6 - 27%), 2% (0.1 - 11%), and 1% (0-5%), respectively. When MA of pathogen/seafood combination resulted in statistically significant heterogeneity (p<0.1), median/range were reported at the region level. The results from our ScS, SR, and MA could be used for better design of future bacteriological surveys of seafood and as inputs for risk assessments or surveillance initiatives in this field. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
The public-private collaborative project is coordinated by the IWGSC and co-led by Nils Stein of IPK Gatersleben in Germany, Curtis Pozniak of the University of Saskatchewan's Crop Development Centre in Canada, Andrew Sharpe of the Global Institute for Food Security in Canada, and Jesse Poland of Kansas State University in the United States. Project participants also include researchers from Illumina, Inc.; NRGene in Israel and the United States; Tel Aviv University in Israel; and the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA). Funding for this project was provided by Genome Canada, Genome Prairie, Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture, the Saskatchewan and Alberta Wheat Development Commissions, and the Western Grains Research Foundation through the Canadian Triticum Applied Genomics (CTAG2) project, Kansas State University through the US National Science Foundation Plant Genome Research Program, and Illumina, Inc. The new data will help speed up the delivery of a high quality reference sequence of the bread wheat genome. Nils Stein explained, "The new bread wheat de novo shotgun assembly made by NRGene represents a major breakthrough for the IWGSC integrated strategy towards delivering a high quality reference sequence for each of the 21 bread wheat chromosomes." Kellye Eversole, IWGSC Executive Director, welcomed the results, "The preliminary results obtained by NRGene are impressive. We have been waiting for a number of years to have a high quality whole genome sequence assembly that would complement our chromosome based strategy and accelerate the delivery of the sequence. Thus, this assembly comes exactly at the right time because it can be integrated with the IWGSC chromosome specific resources developed over the past 10 years (e.g., chromosome shotgun sequences, physical maps, and physical map-based sequencing) to deliver a high quality reference sequence for the wheat genome in less than two years." The whole genome assembly data will be integrated with physical-map based sequence data to produce a high-quality, ordered sequence for each wheat chromosome that precisely locates genes, regulatory elements, and markers along the chromosomes, providing invaluable tools for wheat breeders. "This new wheat genome sequence generated by the IWGSC and its partners is an important contribution to understanding the genetic blueprint of one of the world's most important crops," said Curtis Pozniak. "It will provide wheat researchers with an exciting new resource to identify the most influential genes important to wheat adaptation, stress response, pest resistance, and improved yield." Results of the whole genome assembly will be presented at several workshops at the Plant & Animal Genome Conference taking place in San Diego in the United States from 9 to 13 January 2016. All data will be available in the IWGSC wheat sequence repository at URGI-INRA. Wheat is the staple food for more than 35% of the global human population and accounts for 20% of all calories consumed throughout the world. As global population grows, so too does its dependence on wheat. To meet future demands of a projected world population of 9.6 billion by 2050, wheat productivity needs to increase by 1.6% each year. Since availability of new land is limited to preserve biodiversity and water and nutrient resources are becoming scarcer, the majority of this increase has to be achieved via crop and trait improvement on land currently cultivated. A high quality reference genome sequence will provide the detailed genomic information necessary to underpin wheat research ensuring achievement of this goal. Explore further: Scientists complete chromosome-based draft of the wheat genome
Impact of calving seasons and feeding systems in western Canada. I. Postweaning growth performance and carcass characteristics of crossbred steers [Les effets de la saison du vêlage et des systèmes d’alimentation dans l’ouest du Canada. I. Performance de croissance et caractéristiques de carcasse des bouvillons croisés.]
Durunna O.N.,Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture |
Block H.C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
Iwaasa A.D.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
Thompson L.C.,Western Beef Development Center |
And 4 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014
Crossbred steers (n = 272) weaned from early (EC) and late (LC) calving systems (CS) were used to evaluate the impact of two feeding systems (FS) on postweaning performance and carcass characteristics. The steers were randomly assigned to either a rapid-gain feeding (RF) or a slow-gain feeding (SF) system. The RF steers were managed to have body weight (BW) gain of 1 kg d−1 on a silage-hay diet during the backgrounding period prior to finishing, while the SF steers were first backgrounded on a hay diet (gain of 0.7 kg d−1), then grazed alfalfa–meadow bromegrass pasture and annual cereal swaths prior to finishing. All treatment groups received a conventional diet during finishing until the steers attained a target backfat thickness or BW or both. There was no difference (P = 0.48) between the two FS for the average age of the steers at the beginning of the experiment. There was a CS×FS effect (P<0.01) on the age at slaughter, where the steers in the EC-RF, EC-SF, LC-RF and LC-SF were 426, 659, 504 and 606 d, respectively. The longer time on feed for LC-RF steers compared with EC-RF suggests the potential effect of summer ambient temperatures at finishing. The EC-RF group had the least carcass fat thickness (P<0.01), but there was no main or interaction effect (P>0.08) on dressing percentage or lean meat yield. There was a FS effect (P<0.05) on meat colour and marbling texture where SF steers had more desirable meat colour and marbling texture. Beef producers adopting EC-RF would finish their calves earlier but at a lighter weight. © 2014, Agricultural Institute of Canada. All rights reserved.