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Brown-Elliott B.A.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler | Iakhiaeva E.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler | Griffith D.E.,University of Texas at Tyler | Woods G.L.,Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013

Amikacin is a major drug used for the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, but standard laboratory guidelines for susceptibility testing are not available. This study presents in vitro amikacin MICs for 462 consecutive clinical isolates of the MAC using a broth microdilution assay. Approximately 50% of isolates had amikacin MICs of 8 μg/ml, and 86% had MICs of ≤ 16 μg/ml. Of the eight isolates (1.7%) with MICs of 64 μg/ml, five had an MIC of 32 μg/ml on repeat testing. Ten isolates (2.1%) had an initial amikacin MIC of > 64 μg/ml, of which seven (1.5%) had MICs of > 64 μg/ml on repeat testing. These seven isolates had a 16S rRNA gene A1408G mutation and included M. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium chimaera. Clinical data were available for five of these seven isolates, all of which had received prolonged (> 6 months) prior therapy, with four that were known to be treated with amikacin. The 16S mutation was not detected in isolates with MICs of ≤ 64 μg/ml. We recommend primary testing of amikacin against isolates of the MAC and propose MIC guidelines for breakpoints that are identical to the CLSI guidelines for Mycobacterium abscessus: ≤ 16 μg/ml for susceptible, 32 μg/ml for intermediate, and ≥ 64 μg/ml for resistant. If considered and approved by the CLSI, this will be only the second drug recommended for primary susceptibility testing against the MAC and should facilitate its use for both intravenous and inhaled drug therapies. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.


Galloway R.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Levett P.N.,Saskatchewan Disease Control Laboratory
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2010

Serovar identification of clinical isolates of Leptospira is generally not performed on a routine basis, yet the identity of an infecting serovar is valuable from both epidemiologic and public health standpoints. Only a small number of reference laboratories worldwide have the capability to perform the cross agglutinin absorption test (CAAT), the reference method for serovar identification. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is an alternative method to CAAT that facilitates rapid identification of leptospires to the serovar level. We employed PFGE to evaluate 175 isolates obtained from humans and animals submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) between 1993 and 2007. PFGE patterns for each isolate were generated using the NotI restriction enzyme and compared to a reference database consisting of more than 200 reference strains. Of the 175 clinical isolates evaluated, 136 (78%) were identified to the serovar level by the database, and an additional 27 isolates (15%) have been identified as probable new serovars. The remaining isolates yet to be identified are either not represented in the database or require further study to determine whether or not they also represent new serovars. PFGE proved to be a useful tool for serovar identification of clinical isolates of known serovars from different geographic regions and a variety of different hosts and for recognizing potential new serovars.


Smythe L.,Health Support Services Agency | Adler B.,Monash University | Hartskeerl R.A.,Royal Tropical Institute | Galloway R.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2013

The genus Leptospira currently comprises 16 named species. In addition, four unnamed hybridization groups were designated Leptospira genomospecies 1, 3, 4 and 5. These groups represent valid species-level taxa, but were not assigned names in the original description by Brenner et al. [Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 839-858 (1999)]. To rectify this situation, it is proposed that Leptospira genomospecies 1, genomospecies 3, genomospecies 4 and genomospecies 5 should be classified as Leptospira alstonii sp. nov., Leptospira vanthielii sp. nov., Leptospira terpstrae sp. nov. and Leptospira yanagawae sp. nov., respectively, with strains L. alstonii 79601T (= ATCC BAA-2439T), L. vanthielii WaZ HollandT (= ATCC 700522T), L. terpstrae LT 11-33T (= ATCC 700639T) and L. yanagawae Sao PauloT (= ATCC 700523T) as the type strains. The type strains are also available from the culture collections of the WHO Collaborating Centres in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and Brisbane, Australia. © 2013 IUMS.


Haake D.A.,VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System | Levett P.N.,Saskatchewan Disease Control Laboratory
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2015

Leptospirosis is a widespread and potentially fatal zoonosis that is endemic in many tropical regions and causes large epidemics after heavy rainfall and flooding. Infection results from direct or indirect exposure to infected reservoir host animals that carry the pathogen in their renal tubules and shed pathogenic leptospires in their urine. Although many wild and domestic animals can serve as reservoir hosts, the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the most important source of human infections. Individuals living in urban slum environments characterized by inadequate sanitation and poor housing are at high risk of rat exposure and leptospirosis. The global burden of leptospirosis is expected to rise with demographic shifts that favor increases in the number of urban poor in tropical regions subject to worsening storms and urban flooding due to climate change. Data emerging from prospective surveillance studies suggest that most human leptospiral infections in endemic areas are mild or asymptomatic. Development of more severe outcomes likely depends on three factors: epidemiological conditions, host susceptibility, and pathogen virulence (Fig. 1). Mortality increases with age, particularly in patients older than 60 years of age. High levels of bacteremia are associated with poor clinical outcomes and, based on animal model and in vitro studies, are related in part to poor recognition of leptospiral LPS by human TLR4. Patients with severe leptospirosis experience a cytokine storm characterized by high levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-10. Patients with the HLA DQ6 allele are at higher risk of disease, suggesting a role for lymphocyte stimulation by a leptospiral superantigen. Leptospirosis typically presents asa nonspecific, acute febrile illness characterized by fever, myalgia, and headache and may be confused with other entities such as influenza and dengue fever. Newer diagnostic methods facilitate early diagnosis and antibiotic treatment. Patients progressing to multisystem organ failure have widespread hematogenous dissemination of pathogens. Nonoliguric (high output) renal dysfunction should be supported with fluids and electrolytes. When oliguric renal failure occurs, prompt initiation of dialysis can be life saving. Elevated bilirubin levels are due to hepatocellular damage and disruption of intercellular junctions between hepatocytes, resulting in leaking of bilirubin out of bile caniliculi. Hemorrhagic complications are common and are associated with coagulation abnormalities. Severe pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome due to extensive alveolar hemorrhage has a fatality rate of >50%. Readers are referred to earlier, excellent summaries related to this subject (Adler and de la Peña- Moctezuma 2010; Bharti et al. 2003; Hartskeerl et al. 2011; Ko et al. 2009; Levett 2001; McBride et al. 2005). © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.


Romero-Vivas C.M.E.,Universidad del Norte, Colombia | Cuello-Perez M.,Universidad del Norte, Colombia | Agudelo-Florez P.,CES University | Thiry D.,Saskatchewan Disease Control Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2013

Samples were collected from 128 symptomatic humans, 83 dogs, 49 mice, and 20 rats (Rattus rattus: 16; Rattus norvegicus: 4) in neighborhoods where human leptospirosis have been reported within the principal sea-port city of Colombia. Seroprevalences were assessed against 19 pathogenic, 1 intermediate pathogenic, and 1 saprophytic Leptospira serogroups. Pathogenic Leptospira were confirmed using conventional Leptospira-specific polymerase chain-reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis was used for serovar identification. Seroprevalences of 20.4%, 12.5%, 25.0%, 22.9%, and 12.4% were obtained against one to seven different serogroups in mice, R. rattus, R. norvegicus , dogs, and humans, respectively. The DNA was confirmed to be from pathogenic Leptospira by detecting the lipL32 gene in 12.5%, 3.7%, and 0.03% of the R. rattus , dog, and human samples, respectively. The first genetically typed Colombian isolate was obtained from a rat and identified as Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae/Copenhageni. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Vidovic S.,University of Saskatchewan | Horsman G.B.,Saskatchewan Disease Control Laboratory | Liao M.,University of Saskatchewan | Dillon J.-A.R.,University of Saskatchewan
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Presently there is no vaccine against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and therefore accurate information on gonococcal transmission plays a crucial role for interventions designed to limit the spread of infections caused by this microorganism. We evaluated the impact of two different categories of genetic markers, (i) concatenated sequences of 10 housekeeping genes and (ii) hypervariable porB DNA sequences, on the genetic relatedness and subsequently on genotyping analysis of this human pathogen. Eighty gonococcal isolates from Canada, China, the US, Argentina, Venezuela and Chile, collected over different times, were analyzed. Our results show that the choice of genetic marker had a profound effect on the interpretation of genotyping results associated with N. gonorrhoeae. The concatenated sequences of the housekeeping genes preserved the genetic relatedness of closely related isolates, enabling detection of the predominant strains circulating within a community (Saskatchewan, Canada) over an extended period of time. In contrast, a genetic marker based on antigen gene, porB, may lead to a failure to detect these predominant circulating strains. Based on the analysis of the DNA sequences of the 10 housekeeping genes, we identified two major clonal complexes, CC33 and CC22, which comprised STs from China, and Argentina as well as two STs from Canada. Several minor clonal complexes were observed among isolates from Saskatchewan. eBURST analysis suggested that the majority of the tested gonococcal isolates from Saskatchewan, Canada were endemic, with only a couple of genotypes introduced. © 2011 Vidovic et al.


Thakur S.D.,University of Saskatchewan | Levett P.N.,Saskatchewan Disease Control Laboratory | Horsman G.B.,Saskatchewan Disease Control Laboratory | Dillon J.-A.R.,University of Saskatchewan
Sexually Transmitted Infections | Year: 2014

Objectives: To investigate the molecular epidemiology of isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from Saskatchewan, Canada, using Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), and to assess associations between antimicrobial susceptibility (AMS) and specific strain types (STs). Methods: 320 consecutive gonococcal isolates, collected between 2003 and 2008, were typed by NG-MAST. STs were grouped if one of their alleles was common and the other differed by ≤1% in DNA sequence. AMS was determined by agar dilution (CLSI) to seven antibiotics. Results: N gonorrhoeae isolates were resolved into 82 individual NG-MAST STs and 18 NG-MAST ST groups with groups 25, 3655, 921, 3654, 3657 and 3656 comprising 53.4% (171/320) of the isolates. N gonorrhoeae isolates susceptible to all the tested antimicrobials were significantly (p<0.05) associated with ST 25 (87%). Other significant associations between ST and AMS included: ST 3654 and isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of ≥0.03 mg/L to third generation cephalosporins; ST 3711 (100%) and TRNG; and ST/group 3654 (43%) and chromosomal resistance to penicillin and tetracycline. Several NG-MAST STs/groups were significantly associated with isolates with chromosomal resistance to tetracycline. Isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin (n=5) and azithromycin (n=2) appeared as individual STs. Significant associations were observed among individual STs, sex and age of the patient, and regional and temporal distributions. Conclusions: Associations between N gonorrhoeae AMS and NG-MAST STs were identified and may be useful in predicting AMS regionally. Because STs in different countries vary considerably, the use of NG-MAST for the prediction of AMS globally requires further study.


Performances of the BD ProbeTec Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)/Neisseria Gonorrhoeae (GC) Q(x) Amplified DNA Assay reagents on a BD Viper System with XTR Technology and APTIMA COMBO 2 Assay reagents on a TIGRIS DTS platform, for detection of both CT and GC were compared. A total of 1018 first-void urine specimens were tested for the presence of CT and GC DNA using the 2 assays. CT was detected in 143 specimens (14%). Eight specimens exhibited discordant results, and they were divided equally between the 2 assays. Based on the original results, the overall agreement for CT was 99.2%, with 97.1% and 99.5% in agreement with positive and negative specimens, respectively. Cohen's Kappa was 0.967. GC was detected in 27 specimens (2.6%). Two specimens exhibited discordant results, and they were divided equally between the 2 assays. Based on the original results, the overall agreement was 99.8%, with 96.2% and 99.9% in agreement for positive and negative specimens, respectively. Cohen's Kappa was 0.961. There was a high level of agreement between the systems for both CT and GC detection.


Thakur S.D.,University of Saskatchewan | Starnino S.,University of Saskatchewan | Horsman G.B.,Saskatchewan Disease Control Laboratory | Levett P.N.,Saskatchewan Disease Control Laboratory | Dillon J.R.,University of Saskatchewan
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Objectives: To determine which mutations in penA, mtrR and porB are implicated in increasing minimum MICs of ceftriaxone and cefixime in a susceptible gonococcal population and to ascertain associations with gonococcal strain types (STs). Methods: One hundred and forty-six Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates formed two extended-spectrum cephalosporin susceptibility groups: group 1 isolates with cefixime and ceftriaxone MICs of 0.0005-0.016 mg/L; and group 2 isolates with cefixime MICs of 0.03-0.125 mg/L (n = 24) and ceftriaxone MICs of 0.03-0.06 mg/L (n = 23). Mutation patterns in penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2; penA), multiple transfer resistance repressor (MtrR; mtrR) and porin B (PorB; porB) were ascertained by DNA sequence and bioinformatic analysis. STs were determined using N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Results: Most isolates carried PBP2 mutation pattern IX (D345a, F504L, A510V, A516G and P551L; 50/146, 34.2%), a G45D substitution in MtrR (37.7%) and a wild-type (WT) sequence for PorB (43.2%). Group 2 gonococcal isolates were significantly associated with: penA pattern IX; dual mutations in the promoter (A-) and DNA dimerization domain (H105Y) of MtrR; and G120K;A121D substitutions in PorB. There were 50 combined penA/mtrR/porB mutation patterns, with corresponding patterns I/WT/WT and IX/G45D/G120K;A121D predominating. Gonococci susceptible to ceftriaxone and cefixime were significantly associated with NG-MAST ST 25 (33/36; 92%) and the combined penA/mtrR/porB mutation pattern I/WT/WT. No combined mutation pattern or specific ST was associated with elevated ceftriaxone MICs. NG-MAST ST 3654 was significantly associated with the pattern IX/G45D/G120K;A121D and cefixime group 2 isolates. Conclusions: Specific single or combined mutation patterns in penA, mtrR and porB and specific STs were associated with differences in susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefixime. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


Loeb M.,McMaster University | Russell M.L.,University of Calgary | Moss L.,McMaster University | Fonseca K.,University of Calgary | And 10 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2010

Context: Children and adolescents appear to play an important role in the transmission of influenza. Selectively vaccinating youngsters against influenza may interrupt virus transmission and protect those not immunized. Objective: To assess whether vaccinating children and adolescents with inactivated influenza vaccine could prevent influenza in other community members. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cluster randomized trial involving 947 Canadian children and adolescents aged 36 months to 15 years who received study vaccine and 2326 community members who did not receive the study vaccine in 49 Hutterite colonies in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Follow-up began December 28, 2008, and ended June 23, 2009. Intervention: Children were randomly assigned according to community and in a blinded manner to receive standard dosing of either inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine or hepatitis A vaccine, which was used as a control. Main Outcome Measures: Confirmed influenza A and B infection using a realtime reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and by measuring serum hemagglutination inhibition titers. Results: The mean rate of study vaccine coverage among eligible participants was 83% (range, 53%-100%) for the influenza vaccine colonies and 79% (range, 50%-100%) for the hepatitis A vaccine colonies. Among nonrecipients, 39 of 1271 (3.1%) in the influenza vaccine colonies and 80 of 1055 (7.6%) in the hepatitis A vaccine colonies had influenza illness confirmed by RT-PCR, for a protective effectiveness of 61% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8%-83%; P=.03). Among all study participants (those who were and those who were not vaccinated), 80 of 1773 (4.5%) in the influenza vaccine colonies and 159 of 1500 (10.6%) in the hepatitis A vaccine colonies had influenza illness confirmed by RT-PCR for an overall protective effectiveness of 59% (95% CI, 5%-82%; P=.04). No serious vaccine adverse events were observed. Conclusion: Immunizing children and adolescents with inactivated influenza vaccine significantly protected unimmunized residents of rural communities against influenza. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00877396. ©2010 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

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