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Mori S.,NHO Kumamoto Saishunsou National Hospital | Ueki Y.,Sasebo Chuo Hospital | Hirakata N.,Sasebo Chuo Hospital | Oribe M.,Oribe Rheumachika Naika Clinic | And 2 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2012

Objectives: We assessed the influence of tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanised monoclonal anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, on antibody response following influenza vaccination in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: A total of 194 RA patients received inactive trivalent influenza vaccination (A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B/B1 strains). All patients were classified into the TCZ (n=62), TCZ+methotrexate (MTX) (n=49), MTX (n=65) and RA control (n=18) groups. Antibody titres were measured before and 4-6 weeks after vaccination using the haemagglutination inhibitory assay. Results: For the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains, the TCZ and TCZ+MTX groups achieved fold increases of 9.9-14.5, postvaccination seroprotection rates greater than 70% and seroresponse rates greater than 40%. For the B/B1 strain, seroresponse rates were approximately 30%, but fold increases and seroprotection rates were 5.0-5.4 and greater than 70%, respectively, in these treatment groups. MTX had a negative impact on vaccination efficacy, but adequate responses for protection were nevertheless demonstrated in the MTX group. Neither severe adverse effects nor RA flares were observed. Conclusions: TCZ does not hamper antibody response to influenza vaccine in RA patients. Influenza vaccination is considered effective in protecting RA patients receiving TCZ therapy with or without MTX.


Mori S.,NHO Kumamoto Saishunsou National Hospital | Ueki Y.,Sasebo Chuo Hospital | Akeda Y.,Osaka University | Hirakata N.,Sasebo Chuo Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2013

Objectives We assessed the impact of tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanised monoclonal anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, on antibody response following administration of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23). Methods A total of 190 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) received PPV23. Patients were classified into TCZ (n=50), TCZ + methotrexate (MTX) (n=54), MTX (n=62) and RA control (n=24) groups. We measured serotype-specific IgG concentrations of pneumococcal serotypes 6B and 23F using ELISA and functional antibody activity using a multiplexed opsonophagocytic killing assay, reported as the opsonisation indices (OIs), before and 4.6 weeks after vaccination. Positive antibody response was defined as a 2-fold or more increase in the IgG concentration or as a .10-fold or more increase in the OI. Results IgG concentrations and OIs were significantly increased in all treatment groups in response to vaccination. The TCZ group antibody response rates were comparable with those of the RA control group for each serotype. MTX had a negative impact on vaccine efficacy. Multivariate logistic analysis confirmed that TCZ is not associated with an inadequate antibody response to either serotype. No severe adverse effect was observed in any treatment group. Conclusions TCZ does not impair PPV23 immunogenicity in RA patients, whereas antibody responses may be reduced when TCZ is used as a combination therapy with MTX.


Mori S.,NHO Kumamoto Saishunsou National Hospital | Ueki Y.,Sasebo Chuo Hospital
Modern Rheumatology | Year: 2011

To characterize primary failure to infliximab and determine the efficacy of switching to tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we examined 24 RA patients who had started on infliximab therapy (3 mg/kg) as their first biological agent. Nine of the 24 patients were found to be primary nonresponders, defined as patients who had never achieved a 20% clinical improvement according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR20) during induction therapy. The remaining 15 patients had achieved an ACR20 response to infliximab, without any relapses, for at least the first 14 weeks. A higher baseline health assessment questionnaire score was markedly associated with primary unresponsiveness to infliximab (p = 0.0005). Six of the 9 primary nonresponders showed rapid clearance of infliximab: their trough concentrations of infliximab were under 1 μg/ml. The other 3 were classified as exhibiting the residual type of unresponsiveness, which was defined as unresponsiveness in patients who maintained serum infliximab levels above 1 lg/ml. Human antichimeric antibody was not detected in the rapid-clearance nonresponders. Dose escalation (5 mg/kg) was insufficiently effective. Primary nonresponders to infliximab were started on tocilizumab therapy (8 mg/kg, every 4 weeks), and their responses were assessed after 24 weeks of this second attempt at therapy. All the nonresponders, except for a single rapid-clearance patient, had achieved an ACR20 clinical improvement at the time of assessment. In conclusion, primary nonresponders to infliximab can be classified into rapid-clearance and residual types, based on their trough concentrations of infliximab, but both types of nonresponders seem to benefit from an early decision to discontinue infliximab therapy and switch to tocilizumab. © Japan College of Rheumatology 2011.


Kajihara K.,Sasebo Chuo Hospital
Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy | Year: 2013

We report a case of lethal interstitial pneumonia that occurred after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer. A 76-year-old man with no history of interstitial pneumonia received 2 courses of S-1 (100 mg/body) following 1 course of S-1 plus cisplatin( CDDP) from June 2012. He complained of dyspnea on exertion 6 days after completion of the treatment. Chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) revealed diffuse interstitial lesions in bilateral lung fields. Bronchoalveolar lavage( BAL) revealed an increased number of lymphocytes and leukocytes. Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) revealed interstitial pneumonia with fibrous thickening in the alveolar septum. The drug lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) was positive for S-1 and negative for CDDP. These results suggested that S-1 had induced interstitial pneumonia. Steroid therapy( 40 mg/day prednisolone following 500 mg methylprednisolone pulse therapy) and an antibiotic agent were administered but were ineffective. He rapidly developed respiratory failure and required tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation on hospital day 24, and died on hospital day 38.


Ueki Y.,Sasebo Chuo Hospital
Japanese Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Objective The objective of this study is to assess the usefulness, safety, and user-friendliness of tocilizumab (TCZ) formulation with an autoinjector (AI) (TCZ AI) and to compare with those of TCZ pre-filled syringe formulation (TCZ PFS) in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Fifty one patients with RA were subcutaneously administered TCZ at a dose of 162 mg every 2 weeks and examined the efficacy and safety of TCZ. Fifty patients who had been administered TCZ PFS by self-injection switched to self-injecting TCZ AI at Week 12 and 1 patient used TCZ AI without self-injection of PFS. The satisfaction and user-friendliness of the two injection types were surveyed in those patients and related healthcare professionals by using respective questionnaires. Results There were not observed any differences in the efficacy (ACR20, ACR50 and ACR70, DAS28-ESR) and safety (Adverse Event and Injection Site Reaction) between TCZ PFS and TCZ AI formulations. Patients with RA preferred TCZ AI formulation to TCZ PFS formulation in any questions for the satisfaction and user-friendliness in the questionnaires. The healthcare professionals answered that the user-friendliness and satisfaction of TCZ AI were better than or almost equal to those of TCZ PFS. Conclusion Present study demonstrates that TCZ AI formulation rather than TCZ PFS would be preferred by both patients with RA and health-care professionals with high satisfaction in usability, and suggests that TCZ AI formulation would be a useful option in the treatment of RA.


Shigemasa Y.,Sasebo Chuo Hospital
Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy | Year: 2013

Purpose: The aim of this study was to elucidate the risk factors for recurrence of Stage IIIa colon and rectosigmoid cancer. Patients and methods: The subjects were 93 patients with Stage IIIa colon and rectosigmoid cancer who underwent radical colectomy in this department between 2001 and 2011. Various risk factors for recurrence were examined. Results: The overall recurrence rate was 18% (17/93 cases). Univariate analysis identified a risk factor for recurrence: depth of tumor invasion( ≥serosa exposed[ SE])(hazard ratio[ HR] 10.04, 95% confidence interva[l CI] 3.26-30.89, p<0.0001). The rate of 1, 2, and 3-year relapse-free survival of patients with respect to the depth of tumor invasion( ≥SE) were 76%, 61%, and 56%, respectively. Conclusion: Tumor depth SE or serosa infiltrating( SI) was a risk factor for the recurrence of Stage IIIa colon and rectosigmoid cancer.


Khan K.N.,Nagasaki University | Kitajima M.,Nagasaki University | Yamaguchi N.,Nagasaki University | Fujishita A.,Saiseikai Nagasaki Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Human Reproduction | Year: 2012

STUDY QUESTIONCan prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in menstrual and peritoneal fluid (PF) promote bacterial growth in women with endometriosis?SUMMARY ANSWERPGE2 promotes bacterial growth in women with endometriosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYMenstrual blood of women with endometriosis is highly contaminated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) compared with that of non-endometriotic women: E. coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) promotes the growth of endometriosis. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATIONCase-controlled biological research with a prospective collection of body fluids and endometrial tissues from women with and without endometriosis with retrospective evaluation. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING AND METHODSPF and sera were collected from 58 women with endometriosis and 28 women without endometriosis in an academic research laboratory. Menstrual blood was collected from a proportion of these women. Macrophages (Mφ) from PF and stromal cells from eutopic endometria were isolated in primary culture. The exogenous effect of PGE2 on the replication of E. coli was examined in a bacterial culture system. Levels of PGE2 in different body fluids and in the culture media of Mφ and stromal cells were measured by ELISA. The effect of PGE2 on the growth of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was examined. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCEThe PGE2 level was 2-3 times higher in the menstrual fluid (MF) than in either sera or in PF. A significantly higher level of PGE2 was found in the MF and PF of women with endometriosis than in control women (P < 0. 05 for each). Exogenous treatment with PGE2 dose dependently increased E. coli colony formation when compared with non-treated bacteria. PGE 2-enriched MF was able to stimulate the growth of E. coli in a dilution-dependent manner; this effect was more significantly enhanced in women with endometriosis than in control women (P < 0. 05). PGE2 levels in the culture media of LPS-treated Mφ/stromal cells were significantly higher in women with endometriosis than in non-endometriosis (P < 0. 05 for each). Direct application of PGE2 and culture media derived from endometrial Mφ or stromal cells significantly suppressed phytohemagglutinin-stimulated growth of PBLs. LIMITATIONS AND REASONS FOR CAUTIONFurther studies are needed to examine the association between PGE 2-stimulated growth of E. coli and endotoxin level and to investigate the possible occurrence of sub-clinical infection within vaginal cavity. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGSOur findings may provide some new insights to understand the physiopathology or pathogenesis of the mysterious disease endometriosis and may hold new therapeutic potential. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)This work was supported by grants-in-aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Sports, Culture, Science and Technology of Japan. There is no conflict of interest related to this study. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERNot applicable. © 2012 The Author.


Khan K.N.,Nagasaki University | Kitajima M.,Nagasaki University | Hiraki K.,Nagasaki University | Fujishita A.,Nagasaki Saiseikai Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Human Reproduction | Year: 2010

Background: Information is limited regarding the multifunctional role of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) therapy in reproductive diseases. We investigated the pattern of changes in inflammatory reaction, micro-vessel density and apoptosis in the tissues collected from women with endometriosis, adenomyosis and uterine myoma who were treated with or without GnRHa therapy. Methods: Biopsy specimens were collected from lesions, myometria and corresponding endometria of 45 women with ovarian endometrioma, 35 women with adenomyosis and 56 women with uterine myoma. A fraction of these women were treated with GnRHa therapy for a variable period of 3-6 months before surgery. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of CD68, a macrophage (M) marker and von Willebrand factor (VWF), a vessel marker, using respective antibodies. Changes in apoptosis were examined using TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling assay and by the immunoexpression of activated caspase-3 in tissues after GnRHa therapy. Results: The infiltration of CD68-positive M and VWF-positive micro-vessel density were significantly decreased in the endometria of women with endometriosis, adenomyosis and uterine myoma in the GnRHa-treated group when compared with that in the non-treated group. Marked decreases in inflammatory and angiogenic responses were observed in lesions and myometria of these diseases. When compared with the non-treated group, a significant increase in apoptotic index (apoptotic cells per 10 mm 2 area) and quantitative-histogram scores of activated caspase-3 after GnRHa therapy were observed in the eutopic endometria, lesions and myometria of these diseases. Conclusion: SGnRHa was able to markedly reduce the inflammatory reaction and angiogenesis and to significantly induce apoptosis in tissues derived from women with endometriosis, adenomyosis and uterine myoma. These multiple biological effects at the tissue level may be involved in the regression of these reproductive diseases.


Khan K.N.,Nagasaki University | Kitajima M.,Nagasaki University | Hiraki K.,Nagasaki University | Fujishita A.,Nagasaki Saiseikai Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Human Reproduction | Year: 2010

Background We recently demonstrated the effect of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) on tissue inflammation, angiogenesis and apoptosis in endometriosis, adenomyosis and uterine myoma. Here, we investigated expression of GnRH receptors (GnRHRs) and effect of GnRHa on the proliferation of cells derived from endometria and pathological lesions of women with these reproductive diseases. Methods Biopsy specimens were collected from lesions and corresponding endometria of 35 women with pelvic endometriosis, 45 women with ovarian endometrioma, 35 women with adenomyosis and 56 women with uterine myoma during laparoscopy or laparotomy. The gene and protein expressions of GnRHR in eutopic/ectopic cells and tissues were examined by reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. The immunoreactivity of GnRHR in tissue was analysed by quantitative-histogram (Q-H) scores. The exogenous effect of GnRHa on cell proliferation was examined by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation assay. The Ki-67-immunoreactive cell proliferation index was analysed in biopsy specimens derived from GnRHa-treated and-non-treated women. Results Types I and II GnRHRs mRNA and proteins were expressed in eutopic endometria and pathological lesions derived from women with endometriosis, adenomyosis and uterine myoma. GnRHR expression was the highest in the menstrual phase when compared with other phases of the menstrual cycle. Higher Q-H scores of GnRHR immunoreaction were found in blood-filled opaque red lesions than in other peritoneal lesions. Exogenous treatment with GnRHa significantly suppressed the proliferation of cells derived from respective endometria and pathological lesions when compared with GnRHa-non-treated cells. Conclusions Local tissue expression of GnRHR was detected in endometriosis, adenomyosis and uterine myoma. In addition to a hypo-estrogenic effect, a direct anti-proliferative effect of GnRHa may be involved in the regression of these reproductive diseases with consequent remission of clinical symptoms. © 2010 The Author.


Ogata A.,Osaka University | Tanimura K.,Hokkaido Medical Center for Rheumatic Diseases | Sugimoto T.,National Hospital Organization | Inoue H.,Inoue Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Arthritis Care and Research | Year: 2014

Objective To evaluate the efficacious noninferiority of subcutaneous tocilizumab injection (TCZ-SC) monotherapy to intravenous TCZ infusion (TCZ-IV) monotherapy in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with an inadequate response to synthetic and/or biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Methods This study had a double-blind, parallel-group, double-dummy, comparative phase III design. Patients were randomized to receive TCZ-SC 162 mg every 2 weeks or TCZ-IV 8 mg/kg every 4 weeks; no DMARDs were allowed during the study. The primary end point was to evaluate the noninferiority of TCZ-SC to TCZ-IV regarding the American College of Rheumatology criteria for 20% improvement in disease activity (ACR20) response rates at week 24 using an 18% noninferiority margin. Additional efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetic, and immunogenicity parameters were assessed. Results At week 24, ACR20 response was achieved in 79.2% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 72.9, 85.5) of the TCZ-SC group and in 88.5% (95% CI 83.4, 93.5) of the TCZ-IV group; the weighted difference was -9.4% (95% CI -17.6, -1.2), confirming the noninferiority of TCZ-SC to TCZ-IV. Remission rates of the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the Clinical Disease Activity Index at week 24 were 49.7% and 16.4% in the TCZ-SC group and 62.2% and 23.1% in the TCZ-IV group, respectively. Serum trough TCZ concentrations were similar between the groups over time. Incidences of all adverse events and serious adverse events were 89.0% and 7.5% in the TCZ-SC group and 90.8% and 5.8% in the TCZ-IV group, respectively. Anti-TCZ antibodies were detected in 3.5% of the TCZ-SC group; no serious hypersensitivity was reported in these patients. Conclusion TCZ-SC monotherapy demonstrated comparable efficacy and safety to TCZ-IV monotherapy. TCZ-SC could provide additional treatment options for patients with RA. © 2014 The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research is published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology.

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