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Roy S.,Saroj Gupta Cancer Center and Research Institute | Nandi A.,Medical College | Das I.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Mandal P.K.,North Bengal Medical College
Journal of Cytology | Year: 2015

Background: Percutaneous lung biopsy is now a common procedure in pulmonary medicine, and several different techniques are in use. The most common has been the use of a fine needle under computed tomography (CT) guidance combined with the trucut needle for histology. Aim: To evaluate the effi cacy of fi ne needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and immunocytochemistry in comparison with trucut biopsy and immunohistochemistry in patients with localized intrathoracic lesions suspicious for malignancy. Materials and Methods: Eighty patients with localized mass lesions in the lung on imaging (chest radiograph/CT) were selected for this study over a period of 1 year. FNAC was carried out by a 22 G spinal needle after localization of the mass in the CT scan followed by guided trucut biopsy. Immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry were performed as and when required. Results: The mean age of our study population was 57.6 years and the M:F ratio was 4.2:1. Majority of the lesions were peripheral and in the right lung. Adenocarcinoma was most prevalent (49%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. Cyto-histopathological concordance was seen in 60 cases (75%). The highest rate of concordance was seen in small cell carcinoma (83.3%). The overall sensitivity of FNAC in distinguishing malignant lung lesions from benign lesions was 84.2% and the specifi city was 100%. The sensitivity of cytology in diagnosing small cell carcinoma was 83.3% and of non-small cell carcinoma was 65.38%. Immunocytochemistry was carried out in 34 cases, all of which were followed by immunohistochemistry. Cyto-histopathological concordance was noted in 31 of these cases (91.2%). We used the standard panel of four markers (cytokeratin-7, thyroid transcription factor-1, p63 and CD56) for all selected cases. Conclusion: Cytology along with immunocytochemistry is highly effective in diagnosing and categorizing lung neoplasms, producing comparable results to trucut biopsy and immunohistochemistry. Source

Verma S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Kesh K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Gupta A.,Saroj Gupta Cancer Center and Research Institute | Swarnakar S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2015

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9, a key member of multifunctional family of zinc dependent endopeptidases has been found to be upregulated during inflammation and in some cancers. MMPs cleave extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and play critical roles in cellular apoptosis, angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. Several genetic polymorphisms have been identified that show allele specific effects on MMP9 regulation and are associated with gastric cancer, the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Besides Helicobacter pylori infection, genetic predisposition is another documented risk factor for gastric carcinoma. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position-1562C/T of MMP9 results in the modulation for binding of transcription factors to the MMP9 gene promoter and thereby causes differences in protein expression and enzymatic activity. MMP9 transcriptional regulation during gastric cancer development remains poorly known although several studies have demonstrated associations between MMP9-1562 C/T polymorphism with different diseases. Knowledge on mechanisms of MMP9 upregulation during gastric cancer may provide new paradigm in diagnostics and therapeutics. Source

Mandal P.K.,Medical College | Mondal S.K.,Medical College | Roy S.,Saroj Gupta Cancer Center and Research Institute | Adhikari A.,Medical College | Sinha S.K.,Medical College
Journal of Cytology | Year: 2013

Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a rapid, cheap and reliable method for diagnosing any accessible lesion. However, there remains a group of malignant undifferentiated neoplasms, which can only be categorized with the help of immunocytochemistry (ICC). The categorization is important due to their vast difference in treatment and prognosis. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of ICC in categorizing the undifferentiated neoplasms diagnosed on routine FNAC smears. Materials and Methods: Thirty six cases of undifferentiated neoplasms were selected from a group of total 78 cytology cases of undifferentiated tumors from different sites like head and neck, lymph node, soft tissue etc. These were then subjected to a panel of ICC markers based on the clinical and cytomorphological features. Results: Of these, 21 were simple, ten were computerized tomography guided and five were ultrasound guided FNACs respectively. All the 78 cases were confirmed by histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry. Of the 36 cytological cases, final diagnosis correlated in 30 cases histologically. The six cases were incorrect either due to inadequate material on the smears (three cases) or false positive staining (three cases). Conclusions: Our study found that ICC is a sensitive and specific method for early and definitive diagnosis of undifferentiated neoplasms. However, selection of antibodies must be judicious to make it cost effective. Source

Chakraborty D.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Jain C.K.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Maity A.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Ghosh S.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | And 4 more authors.
MedChemComm | Year: 2016

Desgalactotigonin (DGT) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-d-glucuronide (OAG) were isolated from Chenopodium album seeds, characterized using spectral analysis and evaluated for cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. DGT and OAG induced apoptosis in a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and were found to effectively inhibit human topoisomerases I and II in vitro. The study of the mode of enzyme inhibition revealed that both acted as catalytic inhibitors. IC50 values for DGT and OAG on MCF-7 cells were found to be 8.27 μM and 11.33 μM respectively. Using FACS and western blot analysis, the compounds were observed to block the cell cycle at S phase. Activation of caspases 7 and 9 suggested that caspase pathways were involved in inducing apoptosis. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016. Source

Mandal P.,National Institute of Biomedical Genomics | Bhattacharjee B.,Indian Statistical Institute | Bhattacharjee B.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Das Ghosh D.,Indian Statistical Institute | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

We tested the hypothesis that (i) synonymous variations within the coding regions, and (ii) variations within the non-coding regions of HPV, influence cervical cancer (CaCx) pathogenesis under the impact of intact HPV16 genomes. Whole genome sequence analysis of HPV16 isolates within 70 CaCx cases and 25 non-malignant samples revealed that synonymous variations were significantly higher within the E6 (p = 0.014), E5 (p = 0.001) and L2 (p = 0.0002) genes of HPV16 isolates within cases, compared to isolates within non-malignant samples. All of the 25 (100%) humanized codons identified within L2 ORF of the samples analyzed, were harbored by CaCx cases, while 8 out of 25 (32%) were harbored by HPV16 positive non-malignant samples (p = 3.87105E-07). L2 (mRNA and protein) expression was evident only among cases with episomal viral genomes and L2 mRNA expression correlated significantly with E2 gene copy numbers suggesting expression from all episomal genomes. Among such cases, Asian American (AA) isolates portrayed all of the humanized codons (100%; 4-6/sample) recorded within L2, which was significantly higher (p = 2.02E-7) compared to the European (E) isolates (22.8%; none or 1-2/sample). Additionally, majority of E variant isolates within cases (54/57; 94.7%) portrayed a variation (T4228C) within the short non-coding region (NCR2) between E5 and L2 genes, which portrays a weak promoter activity specific for L2 mRNA expression. This resulted in loss of 9 out of 14 miRNA binding sites (hsa-miR-548 family), despite the significant overexpression of miR548a-5p and miR548d-5p among such cases (28.64 and 36.25 folds, respectively), in comparison to HPV negative control samples. The findings exemplify the biological relevance of sequence variations in HPV16 genomes and highlight that episomal HPV16 in CaCx cases employ multiple mechanisms to sustain L2 expression, thereby justifying the potential role of L2 in such cancers, as opposed to those harboring viral integration. © 2013 Mandal et al. Source

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