Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

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Mazandaran, Iran

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Gholizadeh M.,Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2017

The objective of this study was to use pedigree analysis to evaluate the population structure and genetic variability of the Mazandaran native fowls in Iran by quantifying the pedigree completeness index, effective population size, genetic diversity, inbreeding level, and individual increase in inbreeding. The pedigree completeness analysis showed 3.31 full, 10.19 maximum, and 6.30 equivalent generations. The effective number of founders (fe) was 131, representing 5% of the potential number of founders. The effective number of ancestors (fa) was 81, and the genetic contribution of the 37 most influent ancestors explained 50% of the genetic variability in the population. The ratio fe/fa (effective number of founders/effective number of ancestors), which expresses the effect of population bottlenecks, was 1.62. The inbreeding coefficient increased over generations and the average was 1.93%. The average relatedness coefficient between individuals of the population was estimated to be 2.59%. The effective population size, based on the number of full generations, was 56. Family size analysis showed that fewer males than females were used, resulting in the observed levels of inbreeding. Average inbreeding coefficient in the Mazandaran native fowls can be regarded to be below critical levels. However, considering the relationship coefficients of individuals is recommended to aid maintaining genetic diversity of Mazandaran native fowls. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Karimi-Maleh H.,Kerman Graduate University of Technology | Biparva P.,Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Hatami M.,Khorramshahr Marine Science and Technology University
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2013

A carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with (9, 10-dihydro-9, 10-ethanoanthracene-11, 12-dicarboximido)-4-ethylbenzene-1, 2-diol (DEDE) and NiO/CNTs nanocomposite was used for the sensitive voltammetric determination of cysteamine (CA), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and folic acid (FA) for the first time. The synthesized materials were characterized with different methods such as XRD, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The modified electrode exhibited a potent and persistent electron mediating behavior followed by well-separated oxidation peaks of CA, NADH and FA. The peak currents were linearly dependent on CA, NADH and FA concentrations using square wave voltammetry (SWV) method in the ranges of 0.01-250, 1.0-500, and 3.0-550μmolL-1, with detection limits of 0.007, 0.6, and 0.9μmolL-1, respectively. The modified electrode was used for the determination of CA, NADH and FA in biological and pharmaceutical samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Kazemi S.M.,Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Hosseini S.M.,University of Tehran
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

This study aims to estimate the spatial distribution patterns of six heavy metals: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Plumbum (Pb), Zinc (Zn) in the sediments of Caspian Sea. Ordinary kriging (OK), genetic algorithm based on artificial neural network (GA-ANN), adaptive network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and conditional simulation (CS) have been used for spatial distribution modeling. A total number of 80 surface sediment samples were collected in the year 2007 in Caspian Sea and Volga Delta in framework of the Caspian Ecosystem Program (CEP) which focuses on contaminants survey. As part of these samples, five countries of Iran (18 samples), Azerbaijan (16 samples), Turkmenistan (21 samples), Kazakhstan (13 samples), and Russia (12 samples). Results indicate that the CS realizations yields interpolation values such that the parsimony principle can not be kept. Simulated maximum and minimum values based on the CS method, is less and more than corresponding observed values, respectively. The OK realization smoothed out spatial variability and extreme measured values between the range of observed minimum and maximum values for all of the contaminants. The GA-ANN model has been capable of simulating the minimum values of contaminants as well. ANFIS, GA-ANN and OK are capable simulate the average values of contaminants, as well, except Cd and Hg. The results of spatial distribution modeling of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn show that the maximum concentrations of these contaminants are distributed in the south of Caspian Sea, near the boundary of Azerbaijan and Iran. In the case of As, maximum concentration is found in the north and south of the study area. Finally, comparison between the four interpolated techniques, GA-ANN model is the best model in keeping the statistical characteristics of the observed data for all contaminants, however ANFIS model is the best model with least simulation errors. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zabihzadeh S.M.,Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
BioResources | Year: 2010

The flexural properties of commercial bagasse-filled polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) composites were determined as a function of strain rate at room temperature. The applied strain rates were 1.5 ×10-4, 3.75×10-4, 7.5×10-4, and 1.5×10-3 s-1. The flexural modulus tended to increase linearly for the two types of composites with the logarithm of strain rate. The bending strength of polypropylene composite also behaved in a similar manner, but the polyethylene composite exhibited different behavior in which the MOR values of polyethylene composite didn't alter appreciably as a function of strain rate. The flexural response of a polypropylene-based composite was found to exhibit higher dependency on strain rate than a polyethylene-based composite. Water absorption of both composites followed the kinetics of a Fickian diffusion process. Water absorption and dimensional instability of PE-based composites were lower than those of PP-based composites. The highest swelling took place in the thickness of the samples, followed by the width and length, respectively.


Zabihzadeh S.M.,Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
BioResources | Year: 2010

Composites of flour from different lignocellulosic sources with high-density polyethylene were prepared, and their water absorption and flexural properties were studied. Flour samples from loblolly pine, hybrid Euro-American poplar, and wheat straw were mixed with the polymer at 35 wt % lignocellulosics content and either zero or 2% compatibilizer. Water absorption tests were carried out on injection-molded specimens for temperatures of 30, 45, 60, and 75°C. Results indicated a significant difference among different lignocellulosic types, of which wheat straw composites exhibited the highest and the pine composites showed the lowest water absorption values. The composites with 2% MAPE showed lower water absorption compare to the composites without MAPE. This indicates that the compatibilizer plays an important role to repel the water molecules. For all four temperature conditions, rising temperature increased water absorption significantly. Composites with poplar had the highest flexural strength and modulus. Adding compatibilizer to the composites boosted the flexural properties by improving the adhesion between natural filler and the polymer matrix.


Zabihzadeh S.M.,Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials | Year: 2010

The thermal stability and the thermal expansion of wheat straw flour filled polypropylene and high density polyethylene composites were studied using thermogravimetric analysis and thermomechanical analysis. The results of this study showed that the thermal degradation and the thermal expansion of the composites were affected by plastic type and compatibilizer. The thermal stability of HDPE-based composites was found to be higher than that of PP-based ones. Adding compatibilizer to the composites boosted the thermal stability of agro-filler thermoplastic composites by improving the adhesion between wheat straw flour and the matrices. The thermal degradation activation energy of pure PP and HDPE was higher than that of the composites. The activation energy of compatibilized composites was slightly higher than uncompatibilized ones. TMA results indicated that wheat straw flour was a suitable material for decreasing the thermal expansion of the composites caused by cold and warm atmospheric changes. The thermal expansion of PP and wheat straw flour filled polypropylene composites was found to be lower than that of HDPE and HDPE-based composites. © 2010 The Author(s).


Kordkheili H.Y.,Islamic Azad University at Sari | Farsi M.,Islamic Azad University at Sari | Rezazadeh Z.,Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
Composites Part B: Engineering | Year: 2013

The objective of this investigation was to evaluate physical, mechanical and morphological properties of experimental polymer type panels made from single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and wood flour. The composites with different SWCNTs (0, 1, 2, 3 phc) and maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MAPE) (0 and 3 phc) contents were mixed by melt compounding in an internal mixer and then the composites manufactured by injection molding method. The mass ratio of the wood flour to LDPE was 50/50 (w/w) in all compounds. Water absorption, thickness swelling, bending characteristics, impact strength and morphological properties of the manufactured composites were evaluated. Based on the findings in this work the water absorption and thickness swelling of the nanocomposites decreased with increasing with amount of the SWCNTs (from 1 to 3 phc) and MAPE (3 phc) in the panels. The mechanical properties of LDPE/wood-flour composites could be significantly enhanced with increased percentage of MAPE and SWCNTs content. Panels having 2 phc SWCNTs and 3 phc MAPE exhibited the highest impact strength value. Also Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrographs showed that carbon nanotubes can fill the voids of wood plastic composites as well as addition of MAPE and SWCNTs enhanced interaction between the components. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Milani J.M.,Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
Veterinarni Medicina | Year: 2013

Spoilage fungi are ubiquitous contaminants of cereals, pre- and post-harvest. These fungi can produce a wide range of secondary metabolites under ecological conditions which are conducive for growth. However, some of these secondary metabolites are toxic and have a significant impact if they enter the production and animal food chains. Prevention of mycotoxin contamination of feed and food raw materials is now considered more important than subsequent cure. The key ecological determinants pre- and post-harvest are water availability and temperature (climate). Accurate information is therefore needed on the impact of an association between these key factors, and it is necessary to understand which are marginal and which critical for germination and toxin production. There have only been a few studies where attempts have been made to integrate the available information on these factors in relation to different raw materials for feed and food processing, especially cereals. This review will examine the available information on the main climatic factors, i.e., water availability and temperature affecting mycotoxin production such as, aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and citrinin. This information is crucial for accurately focusing and monitoring key critical control points in the feed and food chain to optimise prevention strategies.


Amirkolaie A.K.,Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
Reviews in Aquaculture | Year: 2011

The discharge of waste from aquaculture operations can lead to eutrophication and destruction of natural ecosystem in receiving water body. A controlled waste production strategy is necessary to maintain sustainable aquaculture growth into the future. As feed is the major source of waste in aquaculture, the management of aquaculture waste should be approached through diet formulation or feeding strategies. Highly digestible diets have been introduced as a solution to reduce solid waste excretion. Further reductions in solid waste can be achieved through careful selection of feed ingredients and feed processing to improve nutrient availability. An increase in faeces consistency by diet manipulation can improve solid removal efficiency. This condition can reduce the proportion of solids in discharged water in the effluent and also improve farm water quality. A reduction in dissolved nitrogen waste can be achieved by ensuring a balance between protein and energy causing fish to use non-protein sources as energy. Phosphorous waste can be decreased through careful ingredient selection and proper processing to improve digestibility. A proper feed ration and feeding method for each species should be adopted because feed waste constitutes a large part of waste production. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


Dirandeh E.,Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2014

The objective was to compare fertility in cows using an Ovsynch protocol starting on day 6 of first postpartum estrous cycle with an Ovsynch protocol initiated at random stages of the estrous cycle during heat stress (temperature-humidity index (THI) = 77-83). Cows (n = 459) at the beginning of the lactation period were randomly assigned to time-of-ovulation synchronization treatments: (1) control, Ovsynch (first GnRH treatment, PGF2α treatment 7 days later, second GnRH treatment 56. h later, and TAI 16. h later), initiated at random stages of the estrous cycle (40 ± 2. days postpartum, n = 224) and (2) Ovsynch initiated on day 6 of first postpartum estrous cycle (estrus = day 0) based on detection of the first estrus after day 30 postpartum (O6, 35 ± 2 postpartum, n = 235). Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS. The percentage of cows responding to the initial GnRH injection using the Ovsynch protocol was greater with the O6 treatment compared to the control treatment (60.4% compared with 52.6%). The percentage of cows having a corpus luteum (CL) on the day of the PGF2α injection was not different among treatments (control = 87.0% and O6 = 90.2%, respectively). Also more cows in the O6 treatment group responded to the second GnRH injection of the Ovsynch protocol compared with control treatments (82.5% compared with 75.8%). Treatment affected the percentage of cows diagnosed pregnant at 32 ± 0.7. days and 60 ± 3. days after the resynchronized timing of AI but pregnancy losses (5.3% compared with 6.8%) did not differ between treatment groups. It is concluded that initiating the Ovsynch protocol 6 days after estrus during the first 40 days postpartum resulted in a greater pregnancy rate at the synchronized estrus and increased fertility compared with control cows during heat stress. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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