Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology
Meerut, India
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Jones J.T.,James Hutton Institute | Haegeman A.,Ghent University | Haegeman A.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Danchin E.G.J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 11 more authors.
Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a 'top 10' list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region of the world in which a researcher is based. However, care was taken to include researchers from as many parts of the world as possible when carrying out the survey. The top 10 list emerging from the survey is composed of: (1) root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.); (2) cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.); (3) root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.); (4) the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis; (5) Ditylenchus dipsaci; (6) the pine wilt nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; (7) the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis; (8) Xiphinema index (the only virus vector nematode to make the list); (9) Nacobbus aberrans; and (10) Aphelenchoides besseyi. The biology of each nematode (or nematode group) is reviewed briefly. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

Singh D.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology | Singh P.K.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Chaudhary S.,University of California at San Francisco | Mehla K.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Kumar S.,International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
Advances in Genetics | Year: 2012

Next-generation sequencing strategies have opened new vistas for molecular plant breeding. The sequence information obtained by the advent of next-generation sequencing provides a valuable tool not only for improving domesticated crops but also for investigating the natural evolution of crops. Such information provides an enormous potential for sustainable agriculture. In this review, we discuss how such sequencing approaches have transformed exome sequencing into a practical utility that has enormous potential for crop improvement in agriculture. Furthermore, we also describe the future of crop improvement beyond the exome sequencing strategies. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Kumar S.,Banaras Hindu University | Kumar S.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology | Kayastha A.M.,Banaras Hindu University
Protein and Peptide Letters | Year: 2012

Soybean urease has been investigated extensively to reveal the presence of histidine residue (s) in the active site and their potential role in the catalysis. The spectrophotometric studies using diethylpyrocarbonate (DEP) showed the modification of 11.76 ± 0.1 histidine residues per mole of native urease. Therefore, the results are indicative of the presence of twelve histidine residues per urease molecule. It is presumed that the soybean urease, being a hexameric protein possess two histidine residues per subunit. Correlation plot showed that the complete inactivation of soybean urease corresponds to the modification of 1.97 histidine residues per subunit. Further, double logarithmic plot of kapp versus DEP concentration has resulted in a linear correlation and thereby demonstrating that only one of the two histidine residues per subunit is catalytically essential. Significant protection has been observed against inactivation when urea or acetohydroxamate (AHA) is incubated with DEP treated urease. The studies have demonstrated the presence of one histidine residue at the active site of soybean urease and its significance in catalysis. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Singh B.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology | Goswami A.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

An experiment on okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] was conducted with 20 genotypes in 17 line × 3 testers fashion during 2012-2013 to procure 51 F1s and 51 F2s in RBD with three replications at HRC, Department of Horticulture, SVPUA and T, Meerut, to study the combining ability of various agronomic and economically important traits for genetic improvement and their effect in the population. Among the parents under study IC 218872 for plant height, VRO 5 for days to flowering, plant height, length of internode and yield/plant showed higher gca effect, whereas crosses IC 306053 × Parbhani Kranti (PK), C 7801 × Parbhani Kranti (PK), Azad Bhindi 2 × Parbhani Kranti (PK), BO 2 × Azad Krishna, FB 10 × Parbhani Kranti (PK) and VRO 1668 × Azad Krishna were showed significant positive effect for more than one character indicating their utility in further breeding programme. The best parents and their crosses are utilized in breeding programme for the improvement of yield components.

Twenty four genotypes of Basmati and non-Basmati rice (Oryza sativa) were evaluated under transplanted aerobic planting patterns, zero-till unpuddled flats and permanent raised beds in a core experiment of Collaborative Participatory Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains. The soil microbes made soil ready and maintained for the next crop by bio-burning and Bio-tilling. The varieties Pusa Basmati-1, Basmati 370, Type-3, N-10B, Vallabh Dhan-1 and Vallabh Basmati-8 are tall growing and had more foliage whereas Sugandha-2, Sugandha-3, CT-6510-24-1-R, IR-64, IR-55-423, and Magadh have early growth vigour; hence all these suppressed the weeds efficiently. The varieties Type-3, N10 B, Pusa Basmati-1, CT-6510-24-1-R and Anjali varieties gave higher yield when transplanted on raised beds and suppressed the weed growth significantly and thus reduced cost of cultivation.

Choudhary V.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology | Prasad L.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology
Vegetos | Year: 2012

Study was conducted to determine the variation in the population of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in crop production fields of North- West Plain Zone (NWPZ) of India. Diseased samples were collected from eight different crops belong to different plant families. Morphological variation on PDA, pathogenicity variation on different host and molecular variation through RAPD analyses were used to determine variation among the isolates. Pathogenic reactions were evaluated on 17 selected hosts through the fungal disc method of inoculation. Brassica oleracea var capitata and Cicer arietinum were susceptible to all isolates. None of the 9 isolates caused infection on garlic plant. Eight RAPD Decamer primers were used to analyze polymorphism among S. sclerotiorum isolates. The specific marker bands obtained with primers OPA-05, OPF- 09 (200 Kb), OPF-17, OPF-19 and OPG-19 were linked and were used as marker band to identify S. sclerotiorum isolate from particular host. Statistical analysis was carryout to determine the genetic uniformity in Sclerotinia isolates using NTSYS-PC software. RAPD results revealed genetic similarity coefficients between isolates which ranged from 0.52 to 0.85. Sclerotinia isolates were grouped into three clusters and cluster I contained maximum number of isolates (6). Clusters II and III contained only one isolate. In cluster I, Mullugo lotoides and Solanum melongena isolates showed high similarity (0.85). The presence of S. sclerotiorum disease on non-economical plants and its ability to cause infection on economically important plants is alarming.

Singh S.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology | Sengar R.S.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2016

Wheat is the second most important crop after rice in India and occupies approximately 28.5 million hectare area. Salinity is one of the major factors reducing plant growth and productivity worldwide, and affects about 7% of world's total land area. In India about 6.73 million hectare land area is salt affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the morpho-physiological and biochemical response of wheat to temporal salinity (ECiw = 10.0 dSm-1) exposures. Ten wheat genotypes were evaluated in two successive growing seasons (2012-2014), with complete randomized design with three replications under both salinity stress and non-stress conditions. The morpho-physiological and biochemical character measured in this investigation, inhibited under both salt stresses (S1 & S2) conditions but much more significantly inhibited under long-term salinity exposure (S2) than S1 because interrupting the metabolic process of plant, resulting in reduced growth and productivity. According to correlation result, selection of high yield genotypes can be done based on plant height (0.649∗), tiller plant-1 (0.808∗ ∗) and leaf area (0.687∗). The multivariate morphophysiological and biochemical parameters should be further used to develop salinity tolerance in wheat breeding improvement programmes. © 2016 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.

Singh D.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology
Vegetos | Year: 2010

Mahalanobis' D2 technique was suggested to be used to measure the genetic divergence between genotypes with respect to several characters at a time. However, use of this technique is important only in cases where the characters are correlated and/or are measured in different units of measurement. It was demonstrated that this technique is unnecessarily used when the characters are uncorrelated and are either measured in the same unit of measurement or are independent of the unit of measurement. In such divergence among different genotypes can be more conveniently measured as a simple sum of squared differences of the original mean values of corresponding characters. Four examples from literature are cited for illustration. Limitation of application of estimates of genetic diversity based on distance matrix in molecular phylogenetic studies have also been discussed.

Singh D.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology
Vegetos | Year: 2010

In an effort made to breed improved varieties of basmati rice, additional information through participatory plant breeding were also collected. Both farmers and plant breeder were involved in selection at F5 and F6 levels. The selections made by the farmers were evaluated at farmers' field at three locations for one year. Such selections were further evaluated by plant breeder in station trials. Most of selections made by the farmers were good yielders with fine grains and early maturing but poor in quality. Finally, all such genotypes were rejected due to poor quality except poor yielder MAUB-15. However, MAUB-162 line selected by the breeder was released for commercial cultivation (Vallabh Basmati-22) in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

Chandra S.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2015

Osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables is achieved by placing the solid/semi solid, whole or in pieces, in a hypertonic solution (sugar and/or salt) with a simultaneous counter diffusion of solutes from the osmotic solution into the tissues. Osmotic dehydration is recommended as a processing method to obtain better quality of food products. Partial dehydration allows structural, nutritional, sensory, and other functional properties of the raw material to be modified. However, the food industry uptake of osmotic dehydration of foods has not been extensive as expected due to the poor understanding of the counter current flow phenomena associated with it. However, these flows are in a dynamic equilibrium with each other and significantly influence the final product in terms of preservation, nutrition, and organoleptic properties. The demand of healthy, natural, nutritious, and tasty processed food products continuously increases, not only for finished products, but also for ingredient to be included in complex foods such as ice cream, cereals, dairy, confectionaries, and bakery products. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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