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Singh D.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology | Singh P.K.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Chaudhary S.,University of California at San Francisco | Mehla K.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Kumar S.,International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
Advances in Genetics

Next-generation sequencing strategies have opened new vistas for molecular plant breeding. The sequence information obtained by the advent of next-generation sequencing provides a valuable tool not only for improving domesticated crops but also for investigating the natural evolution of crops. Such information provides an enormous potential for sustainable agriculture. In this review, we discuss how such sequencing approaches have transformed exome sequencing into a practical utility that has enormous potential for crop improvement in agriculture. Furthermore, we also describe the future of crop improvement beyond the exome sequencing strategies. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Kumar S.,Banaras Hindu University | Kumar S.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology | Kayastha A.M.,Banaras Hindu University
Protein and Peptide Letters

Soybean urease has been investigated extensively to reveal the presence of histidine residue (s) in the active site and their potential role in the catalysis. The spectrophotometric studies using diethylpyrocarbonate (DEP) showed the modification of 11.76 ± 0.1 histidine residues per mole of native urease. Therefore, the results are indicative of the presence of twelve histidine residues per urease molecule. It is presumed that the soybean urease, being a hexameric protein possess two histidine residues per subunit. Correlation plot showed that the complete inactivation of soybean urease corresponds to the modification of 1.97 histidine residues per subunit. Further, double logarithmic plot of kapp versus DEP concentration has resulted in a linear correlation and thereby demonstrating that only one of the two histidine residues per subunit is catalytically essential. Significant protection has been observed against inactivation when urea or acetohydroxamate (AHA) is incubated with DEP treated urease. The studies have demonstrated the presence of one histidine residue at the active site of soybean urease and its significance in catalysis. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Chandra S.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology | Kumari D.,Quality Assurance
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

Osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables is achieved by placing the solid/semi solid, whole or in pieces, in a hypertonic solution (sugar and/or salt) with a simultaneous counter diffusion of solutes from the osmotic solution into the tissues. Osmotic dehydration is recommended as a processing method to obtain better quality of food products. Partial dehydration allows structural, nutritional, sensory, and other functional properties of the raw material to be modified. However, the food industry uptake of osmotic dehydration of foods has not been extensive as expected due to the poor understanding of the counter current flow phenomena associated with it. However, these flows are in a dynamic equilibrium with each other and significantly influence the final product in terms of preservation, nutrition, and organoleptic properties. The demand of healthy, natural, nutritious, and tasty processed food products continuously increases, not only for finished products, but also for ingredient to be included in complex foods such as ice cream, cereals, dairy, confectionaries, and bakery products. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Twenty four genotypes of Basmati and non-Basmati rice (Oryza sativa) were evaluated under transplanted aerobic planting patterns, zero-till unpuddled flats and permanent raised beds in a core experiment of Collaborative Participatory Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains. The soil microbes made soil ready and maintained for the next crop by bio-burning and Bio-tilling. The varieties Pusa Basmati-1, Basmati 370, Type-3, N-10B, Vallabh Dhan-1 and Vallabh Basmati-8 are tall growing and had more foliage whereas Sugandha-2, Sugandha-3, CT-6510-24-1-R, IR-64, IR-55-423, and Magadh have early growth vigour; hence all these suppressed the weeds efficiently. The varieties Type-3, N10 B, Pusa Basmati-1, CT-6510-24-1-R and Anjali varieties gave higher yield when transplanted on raised beds and suppressed the weed growth significantly and thus reduced cost of cultivation. Source

Singh D.,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology

Mahalanobis' D2 technique was suggested to be used to measure the genetic divergence between genotypes with respect to several characters at a time. However, use of this technique is important only in cases where the characters are correlated and/or are measured in different units of measurement. It was demonstrated that this technique is unnecessarily used when the characters are uncorrelated and are either measured in the same unit of measurement or are independent of the unit of measurement. In such divergence among different genotypes can be more conveniently measured as a simple sum of squared differences of the original mean values of corresponding characters. Four examples from literature are cited for illustration. Limitation of application of estimates of genetic diversity based on distance matrix in molecular phylogenetic studies have also been discussed. Source

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