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Kumar S.,Indian Institute of Petroleum | Kumar S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Kumar S.,Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Bio Energy | Dheeran P.,Indian Institute of Petroleum | And 5 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Science

A continuous process with cell recycle was demonstrated on fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate to ethanol having a facility of in-situ stripping of ethanol by air or nitrogen gas. The thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453, grown in xylose-rich hydrolysate, was used in this study for fermenting the glucose-rich hydrolysate at 50°C. The effect of dilution rate, cell mass concentration, and air or nitrogen gas stripping on ethanol production was evaluated. The maximum volumetric productivity of ethanol was 1.22gl-1h-1 on stripping the bioreactor with nitrogen at a dilution rate of 0.075h-1. An ethanol yield of 96% of its theoretical value and 95% sugar conversion efficiency could be obtained while the ethanol concentration in the condensate of the stripper was found to be 56.3gl-1, which was almost 3.4 times concentrated as compared to ethanol concentration in the broth without stripping. The specific ethanol productivity could be improved due to increase in sugar conversion efficiency and higher ethanol yield in a continuous cell recycle fermentation system applying gas stripping at high temperature. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Yadav Y.S.,Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Bio Energy | Prasad K.,Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering And Technology
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America

Dry grinding behavior and powder characteristics of raw and parboiled Pusa 1121 basmati rice brokens were assessed. Grinding duration was found to be having the role in deciding the ultimate size of ground particles with the particle size distribution and confirmed its direct influence on the characteristics of pretreated parboiled rice. Grinding laws namely Kick's, Rittinger's and Bond's law were applied. The grinding constants (KK, KR, WI) for different laws reflected the dependency on grinding duration. Dry grinding of raw rice brokens produced higher fractionations on smaller sieve size in comparison with parboiled rice brokens in the identical grinder and grinding process. Dry grinding of raw and parboiled broken rice resulted in significant difference in powder characteristics. Consequently, the grinding time and powder characteristics of raw rice brokens are more viable in producing fine particulates than parboiled one. © 2016, Farm Machinery Industrial Research Corp. All rights reserved. Source

Rastrogi A.,Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Bio Energy | Rastrogi A.,National Institute of Technology Jalandhar | Jha M.K.,National Institute of Technology Jalandhar | Sarma A.K.,Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Bio Energy
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects

ABSTRACT: The combustion and pyrolysis kinetics of three selected biomasses generated as co-products of the oil and biodiesel industry – namely soya husk (SH), jatropha husk (JH), and Mesua ferrea husk (MH) – using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis techniques have been reported. These biomasses were initially characterized for basic fuel property, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, and fiber analysis. The activation energy calculated using three different kinetic equations, viz. Coats and Redfern, Differential, and Friedman methods for combustion, were found higher than that for pyrolysis for all biomasses at the maximum airflow rate (20ml/min). However, the kinetic parameters are not sufficient alone to explain the suitability of the biomass. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Arora R.,Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Bio Energy | Arora R.,Punjab Technical University | Behera S.,Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Bio Energy | Kumar S.,Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Bio Energy
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

Abstract The progressive depletion of non-renewable energy sources worldwide, together with the fact that their overexploitation has resulted in environmental deterioration and public health problems, has led to consider alternative sources of energy. Lignocellulose-based bioethanol is a leading option among alternatives to petroleum-derived transportation fuels due to its potential sustainability. The production of ethanol through microbial fermentations has generated considerable research interests. Several thermophilic/thermotolerant ethanologenic species i.e. Clostridium thermocellum, C. thermohydrosulfuricum, C. thermosaccharolyticum, Caldicellulosiruptor sp., Thermotoga sp., Thermoanaerobium brockii, Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, T. thermo-hydrosulfuricus, T. mathranii, etc., have been isolated and identified as the potential lignocellulosic ethanol producers. Use of lignocellulolytic organisms alone at high temperatures could potentially reduce the cellulase requirement. Moreover, such cultures facilitate the ethanol production at high temperature and offer the possibility of in-situ ethanol recovery. However, more research on the metabolic pathways, regulation of end-product formation and construction of genetically engineered thermophilic/thermotolerant microorganisms with high tolerance to ethanol is required for optimal utilization of such microbes in industrial fermentations. Therefore, the present review has been focused on thermophilic/thermotolerant microbes for the production of ethanol, especially on their catabolic pathways, end-product formation and their future perspectives for industrial applications. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Aslam M.,Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Bio Energy | Aslam M.,National Institute of Technology Jalandhar | Konwar L.J.,Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Bio Energy | Sarma A.K.,Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Bio Energy | Kothiyal N.C.,National Institute of Technology Jalandhar
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis

Catalytic hydrocracking of high free fatty acid (FFA) containing Mesua ferrea L. and Jatropha curcas oil (triacylglycerol) was investigated using biomass derived heterogeneous catalysts viz. Musa balbisiana Colla underground stem (MBCUS) nanomaterial and biomass based thermal power plant fly ash (BBTPFS). Reactions were studied in a batch mode in a bench scale reactor at 400 °C under variable initial H2 pressure (1-75 bar) for 1-4 h using 1-5 wt.% catalysts loading. Our results confirm that the reaction network consisted of multiple pathways leading to a product mixture rich in hydrocarbons, non-polar oxygenates and organic acids commonly known as biocrude. Decarboxylation, hydrolysis, hydrocracking and thermocatalytic cracking appeared to be the dominating reactions subsequently leading to the production of hydrocarbon mixture of chain length C8-C19. The resultant biocrude was fractionated into four fractions within the boiling range 35-140 °C, 140-180 °C, 180-370 °C and 370-482 °C as per ASTM D2892 and ASTM D5236 specifications. Further, the recovery in each fraction was directly affected by biocrude quality which in-turn was dependent upon catalyst properties and reaction conditions. The reaction networks were also varied significantly with respect to reaction atmosphere and as well as for the two catalysts which directly affected the yield and quality of product (higher heating value, acidity index, liquid distillate recovery etc). To summarize, BBTPFS was found to be a more effective catalyst for acidity and heteroatom removal, and consequently, produced biocrude with lowest acidity and highest percentage (65%) of the product in the liquid hydrocarbon range. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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