Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute

Vallabh Vidyanagar, India

Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute

Vallabh Vidyanagar, India

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Narra M.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Balasubramanian V.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Mehta H.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Dixit G.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

Four anaerobic hybrid reactors with different packing media viz. gravel (R1), pumice stone (R2), polypropylene saddles (R3) and ceramic saddles (R4) were operated in semi-continuous mode. Biomethanation potential of the wastewater generated during alkali-treatment of rice straw in ethanol production process was investigated at ambient conditions. The reactors were operated with varying organic loading rates (0.861-4.313g CODl-1d-1) and hydraulic retention time (3-15days). Higher COD removal efficiency (69.2%) and methane yield (0.153l CH4g-1 CODadded) were achieved in reactor R2 at 15days HRT. Modified Stover-Kincannon model was applied to estimate the bio-kinetic coefficients and fitness of the model was checked by the regression coefficient for all the reactors. The model showed an excellent correlation between the experimental and predicted values. The present study demonstrated the treatment of wastewater from alkali treated rice straw for production of biogas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Narra M.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Dixit G.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Divecha J.,Sardar Patel University | Madamwar D.,Sardar Patel University | Shah A.R.,Sardar Patel University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

Rice straw was used as substrate for cellulase production by solid state fermentation with Aspergillus terreus. Substrate concentration, moisture ratio, inoculum size and initial pH were optimized using response surface methodology involving Box-Behnken design. The predicted filter paper activity under optimized parameters was 9.73U/g and the validated filter paper activity was 10.96U/g. Hydrolysis of the biomass pretreated with 0.125% to 1% NaOH for 24h at room temperature was performed using crude cellulase preparation. Treatment with 0.5% NaOH at room temperature for 24h was the most efficient treatment method for saccharification. Under the optimized conditions, rice straw yielded 676mg reducing sugars per gram of substrate at a cellulase loading of 9FPUg-1 substrate. The present study establishes the possibility of using mild alkali pretreated rice straw for the production of fermentable sugars with 74.19% efficiency which can be further utilized for the production of ethanol. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Siva Reddy V.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Kaushik S.C.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Tyagi S.K.,Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Renewable Energy
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy | Year: 2014

The present work has been undertaken for energetic and exergetic analysis of coal-fired supercritical thermal power plant and natural gas-fired combined cycle power plant. Comparative analysis has been conducted for the two contestant technologies. The key drivers of energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been studied for each of the major sub-system of two contestant technologies. Overall energetic and exergetic efficiency of coal-fired supercritical thermal power plant are found to be 43.48 and 42.89 %, respectively. Overall energetic and exergetic efficiency of natural gas-fired combined cycle power plant are 54.47 and 53.93 %, respectively. The major energetic power loss has been found in the condenser for coal-fired supercritical thermal power plant. On the other hand, the major energetic power loss has been found in both the condenser and heat recovery steam generator for gas-fired combined cycle thermal power plant. The exergetic analysis shows that boiler field is the main source of exergetic power loss in coal-fired supercritical thermal power plant and combustion chamber in the gas-fired combined cycle thermal power plant. It is concluded that natural gas-fired combined cycle power plant is better from energetic and exergetic efficiency point of view. These results will be useful to all involved in the improvement of the design of the existing and future power plants. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Siva Reddy V.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Kaushik S.C.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Ranjan K.R.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Tyagi S.K.,Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Renewable Energy
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

The solar thermal power plant is one of the promising renewable energy options to substitute the increasing demand of conventional energy. The cost per kW of solar power is higher and the overall efficiency of the system is lower. In the present communication, a comprehensive literature review on the scenario of solar thermal power plants and its up-to-date technologies all over the world is presented. Results of the technical and economical feasibility studies by researchers are reported in brief for further reference. It is observed that the solar thermal power plants have come out of the experimental stage to commercial applications. Case studies of typical 50 MW solar thermal power plants in the Indian climatic conditions at locations such as Jodhpur and Delhi is highlighted with the help of techno-economic model. Different solar concentrator technologies (parabolic trough, parabolic dish and central power tower) for solar thermal power plants are compared economically. It has been found that the parabolic dish concentrating solar Stirling engine power plant generate electricity at a lower unit cost than the other two solar technologies considering 30 years lifespan and 10% interest rate on investment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Tinwala F.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Mohanty P.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Parmar S.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Patel A.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Pant K.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2015

Pyrolysis of woody biomass, agro-residues and seed was carried out at 500±10°C in a fixed bed pyrolyser. Bio-oil yield was found varying from 20.5% to 47.5%, whereas the biochar and pyrolysis gas ranged from 27.5% to 40% and 24.5% to 40.5%, respectively. Pyrolysis gas was measured for flame temperature along with CO, CO2, H2, CH4 and other gases composition. HHV of biochar (29.4MJ/kg) and pyrolitic gas (8.6MJ/kg) of woody biomass was higher analogous to sub-bituminous coal and steam gasification based producer gas respectively, whereas HHV of bio-oil obtained from seed (25.6MJ/kg) was significantly more than husks, shells and straws. TGA-DTG studies showed the husks as potential source for the pyrolysis. Bio-oils as a major by-product of intermediate pyrolysis have several applications like substitute of furnace oil, extraction of fine chemicals, whereas biochar as a soil amendment for enhancing soil fertility and gases for thermal application. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Reddy V.S.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Kaushik S.C.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Panwar N.L.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

India is a major future consumer of electric power due to the rapid economic growth and large population. In this article, the present state and perspectives of using various energy sources in India for electric power generation are depicted as well as the main tools for promoting their development and utilization are highlighted. Wide spread use of coal and other fossil fuels have led to accumulation of the enormous amount of carbon dioxide and a resultant global warming in the earth's atmosphere. Use of renewable energy sources is one of the crucial components of the sustainable development. The scope of renewable energy sources for increasing the power generation capacity to meet the demand of Indian needs are described broadly. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Narra M.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Balasubramanian V.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2015

Preliminary investigations were performed in the laboratory using batch reactors at 10% solid concentration for the assessment of the biogas production at thermophilic and mesophilic temperatures using solid residues generated during ethanol fermentation process. One kg of solid residues (left after enzyme extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis) from thermophilic reactors (TR1 and TR2) produced around 131 and 84L of biogas, respectively, whereas biogas production from mesophilic reactors (MR1 and MR2) was 86 and 62L, respectively. After 20 and 35days of retention time, the TS and VS reductions from TR1, TR2 and MR1, MR2 were found to be 39.2% and 35.0%, 67.3% and 61.0%, 21.0% and 18.0%, 34.7% and 27.8%, respectively. Whereas the liquid waste was treated using four laboratory anaerobic hybrid reactors (AHRs) with two different natural and synthetic packing media at 15-3days HRTs. AHRs packed with natural media showed better COD removal efficiency and methane yield. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Narra M.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | James J.P.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Balasubramanian V.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2015

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation studies were carried out using thermotolerant newly isolated Kluyveromyces sp. with three different delignified lignocellulosic biomass viz. rice straw, wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse at 5-15% solid loading and 6-12FPUg-1 substrate enzyme loading for different time intervals 0-72h at 42°C. Maximum ethanol achieved from rice straw, wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse with in-house crude cellulases from Aspergillus terreus was 23.23, 18.29 and 17.91mgmL-1 at 60h with 10% solid load and 9FPUg-1 substrate enzyme loading. Tween 80 1% (v/v) enhanced the ethanol yield by 8.39%, 9.26% and 8.14% in rice straw, wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, respectively. External supplementation of β-glucosidase to the crude as well commercial cellulases produced maximum theoretical ethanol yield of 71.76%, 63.77%, 57.15% and 84.56%, 72.47%, 70.55% from rice straw, wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, respectively. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Makwana J.P.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Joshi A.K.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Athawale G.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Singh D.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Mohanty P.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2015

An experimental study of air gasification of rice husk was conducted in a bench-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) having 210mm diameter and 1600mm height. Heating of sand bed material was performed using conventional charcoal fuel. Different operating conditions like bed temperature, feeding rate and equivalence ratio (ER) varied in the range of 750-850°C, 25-31.3kg/h, and 0.3-0.38, respectively. Flow rate of air was kept constant (37m3/h) during FBG experiments. The carbon conversion efficiencies (CCE), cold gas efficiency, and thermal efficiency were evaluated, where maximum CCE was found as 91%. By increasing ER, the carbon conversion efficiency was decreased. Drastic reduction in electric consumption for initial heating of gasifier bed with charcoal compared to ceramic heater was ~45%. Hence rice husk is found as a potential candidate to use directly (without any processing) in FBG as an alternative renewable energy source from agricultural field. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Kumar N.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Chavda T.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Mistry H.N.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute
Applied Energy | Year: 2010

For impressive dissemination of the solar thermal gazettes, it is imperative to keep on changing the device design features so as to cater to the different demands of diverse section of the society. Domestic solar hot water systems are not suitable for cooking and the capacity of domestic solar box type cookers for water heating is very low. We report truncated pyramid geometry based multipurpose solar device which could be used for domestic cooking as well as water heating. The device is designed, fabricated and tested. Cooking tests approved by Bureau of Indian Standards were performed in different seasons and the device was found to meet the requirement stipulated on two figures of merit. The performance of the design was also evaluated as a hot water system and the maximum efficiency was found to be 54%. The day-time and average night-time heat-loss coefficients were found to be 5.7W/°C m2 and, 3.74W/C m2, respectively, which are comparable to those of flat-plate collector based solar hot water systems. A simple economic analysis illustrate that this kind of multi-purpose design could be financially viable and physically useful. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

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