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Siva Reddy V.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Kaushik S.C.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Ranjan K.R.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Tyagi S.K.,Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Renewable Energy
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

The solar thermal power plant is one of the promising renewable energy options to substitute the increasing demand of conventional energy. The cost per kW of solar power is higher and the overall efficiency of the system is lower. In the present communication, a comprehensive literature review on the scenario of solar thermal power plants and its up-to-date technologies all over the world is presented. Results of the technical and economical feasibility studies by researchers are reported in brief for further reference. It is observed that the solar thermal power plants have come out of the experimental stage to commercial applications. Case studies of typical 50 MW solar thermal power plants in the Indian climatic conditions at locations such as Jodhpur and Delhi is highlighted with the help of techno-economic model. Different solar concentrator technologies (parabolic trough, parabolic dish and central power tower) for solar thermal power plants are compared economically. It has been found that the parabolic dish concentrating solar Stirling engine power plant generate electricity at a lower unit cost than the other two solar technologies considering 30 years lifespan and 10% interest rate on investment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Siva Reddy V.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Kaushik S.C.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Tyagi S.K.,Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Renewable Energy
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy | Year: 2014

The present work has been undertaken for energetic and exergetic analysis of coal-fired supercritical thermal power plant and natural gas-fired combined cycle power plant. Comparative analysis has been conducted for the two contestant technologies. The key drivers of energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been studied for each of the major sub-system of two contestant technologies. Overall energetic and exergetic efficiency of coal-fired supercritical thermal power plant are found to be 43.48 and 42.89 %, respectively. Overall energetic and exergetic efficiency of natural gas-fired combined cycle power plant are 54.47 and 53.93 %, respectively. The major energetic power loss has been found in the condenser for coal-fired supercritical thermal power plant. On the other hand, the major energetic power loss has been found in both the condenser and heat recovery steam generator for gas-fired combined cycle thermal power plant. The exergetic analysis shows that boiler field is the main source of exergetic power loss in coal-fired supercritical thermal power plant and combustion chamber in the gas-fired combined cycle thermal power plant. It is concluded that natural gas-fired combined cycle power plant is better from energetic and exergetic efficiency point of view. These results will be useful to all involved in the improvement of the design of the existing and future power plants. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Reddy V.S.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Kaushik S.C.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Panwar N.L.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

India is a major future consumer of electric power due to the rapid economic growth and large population. In this article, the present state and perspectives of using various energy sources in India for electric power generation are depicted as well as the main tools for promoting their development and utilization are highlighted. Wide spread use of coal and other fossil fuels have led to accumulation of the enormous amount of carbon dioxide and a resultant global warming in the earth's atmosphere. Use of renewable energy sources is one of the crucial components of the sustainable development. The scope of renewable energy sources for increasing the power generation capacity to meet the demand of Indian needs are described broadly. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Narra M.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Balasubramanian V.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2015

Preliminary investigations were performed in the laboratory using batch reactors at 10% solid concentration for the assessment of the biogas production at thermophilic and mesophilic temperatures using solid residues generated during ethanol fermentation process. One kg of solid residues (left after enzyme extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis) from thermophilic reactors (TR1 and TR2) produced around 131 and 84L of biogas, respectively, whereas biogas production from mesophilic reactors (MR1 and MR2) was 86 and 62L, respectively. After 20 and 35days of retention time, the TS and VS reductions from TR1, TR2 and MR1, MR2 were found to be 39.2% and 35.0%, 67.3% and 61.0%, 21.0% and 18.0%, 34.7% and 27.8%, respectively. Whereas the liquid waste was treated using four laboratory anaerobic hybrid reactors (AHRs) with two different natural and synthetic packing media at 15-3days HRTs. AHRs packed with natural media showed better COD removal efficiency and methane yield. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Narra M.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Dixit G.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Divecha J.,Sardar Patel University | Madamwar D.,Sardar Patel University | Shah A.R.,Sardar Patel University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

Rice straw was used as substrate for cellulase production by solid state fermentation with Aspergillus terreus. Substrate concentration, moisture ratio, inoculum size and initial pH were optimized using response surface methodology involving Box-Behnken design. The predicted filter paper activity under optimized parameters was 9.73U/g and the validated filter paper activity was 10.96U/g. Hydrolysis of the biomass pretreated with 0.125% to 1% NaOH for 24h at room temperature was performed using crude cellulase preparation. Treatment with 0.5% NaOH at room temperature for 24h was the most efficient treatment method for saccharification. Under the optimized conditions, rice straw yielded 676mg reducing sugars per gram of substrate at a cellulase loading of 9FPUg-1 substrate. The present study establishes the possibility of using mild alkali pretreated rice straw for the production of fermentable sugars with 74.19% efficiency which can be further utilized for the production of ethanol. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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