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Gogna N.,Indian Institute of Science | Hamid N.,Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical science and Research | Dorai K.,Indian Institute of Science
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2015

Extracts from the Carica papaya L. plant are widely reported to contain metabolites with antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer activity. This study aims to analyze the metabolic profiles of papaya leaves and seeds in order to gain insights into their phytomedicinal constituents. We performed metabolite fingerprinting using 1D and 2D 1H NMR experiments and used multivariate statistical analysis to identify those plant parts that contain the most concentrations of metabolites of phytomedicinal value. Secondary metabolites such as phenyl propanoids, including flavonoids, were found in greater concentrations in the leaves as compared to the seeds. UPLC-ESI-MS verified the presence of significant metabolites in the papaya extracts suggested by the NMR analysis. Interestingly, the concentration of eleven secondary metabolites namely caffeic, cinnamic, chlorogenic, quinic, coumaric, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids, naringenin, hesperidin, rutin, and kaempferol, were higher in young as compared to old papaya leaves. The results of the NMR analysis were corroborated by estimating the total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts. Estimation of antioxidant activity in leaves and seed extracts by DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assays and antioxidant capacity in C2C12 cell line also showed that papaya extracts exhibit high antioxidant activity. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Varshney M.M.,Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology | Varshney M.M.,Post University | Husain A.,Jamia Hamdard University | Parcha V.,Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical science and Research
Der Pharma Chemica | Year: 2014

A novel series of 2-(4-hydroxyaryl)-N'-{5'-(substituted aryl)-furan-2'-yl)-methylidene}-ketohydrazides have been designed and synthesized with a new class of p-chloro-m-cresol Schiff bases derived from the reaction of methyl-phydroxybenzoate 1, with hydraziane hydrate in anhydrous condition yielded 4-hydroxyphenyl-1-ketohydrazide 2, Further the resultant compound (2) was treated with different aromatic furfural aldehydes to yield substituted 2-(4-hydroxyaryl)-N'-{5'-(substituted aryl)-furan-2'-yl)-methylidene}-ketohydrazides (3a-k) Schiff bases. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by IR, 1HNMR, Mass spectral data and CHN analysis. The title compounds 3ak, have been evaluated in vitro antibacterial screening against Gram positive bacterial strains S. aureus, B. cereus , E. faecalis and S. epidermidis and Gram negative bacteria strains E. coli , S. typhi, S. dysenteriae and K. pneumoniae. The synthesized Schiff bases also showed significant anthelmintic activity against two species of earthworms (Pheritima posthuma and Perionyx excavates). Source

Kapoor E.,Atma Ram Sanatan Dharma College | Tripathi V.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Kumar V.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Juyal V.,Kumaun University | And 2 more authors.
Toxicology International | Year: 2014

Increasing incidences of multiple drug-resistance (MDR) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis are emerging as one among the serious public health threats and socio-economic burden to the third world countries including India. Last couples of decades are witnesses of the dedicated and sustained efforts made toward the development of target specific and cost-effective antimicrobial agents against MDR-M. tuberculosis. However, the drugs in use are still incapable of controlling the upsurge of MDR. Thus, in order to address the issue, we synthesized a library of symmetrical trans-cyclohexane-1, 4-diamine derivatives and evaluated their anti-mycobacterium activity in H 37 RV strain of M. tuberculosis. A range of efficacy has been recorded in different derivatives of synthesized compounds and compound "9u" having i-propyl group substitution at p-position, was found to have more significant detrimental effects against the tested strain of M. tuberculosis. The present investigations were aimed to study whether the effective anti-mycobacterium concentrations of "9u" are biologically safe to human cells or not? The human lung epithelial cell line-A549 were exposed to a range of concentrations, i.e., at and above the anti-mycobacterium effective dose of "9u" for a period of 0-96 h. The standard endpoints of cytotoxicity viz., tetrazolium bromide salt (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), neutral red uptake, lactate dehydrogenase release, trypan blue dye exclusion assays; and genotoxicity viz., micronucleus and chromosomal aberrations assays were used to evaluate the bio-safety of test compound. The compound "9u" shows no significant cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in A549 cells exposed to 10 -5 M for 72 h, a concentration substantially higher than the concentration kill the H 37 Rv strain of M. tuberculosis. The compound 9u was found to be safe up to 10 -4 M if given for 24 h. The data reveal the therapeutic potential of compound 9u against M. tuberculosis without any having any cytotoxicity and genotoxicity responses. Source

Kumar L.,Dolphin Institute of Biomedical and Natural Science Manduwala | Kumar L.,Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical science and Research | Awasthi G.,Dolphin Institute of Biomedical and Natural Science Manduwala | Singh B.,Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical science and Research
Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Microbial life does not seem to be limited to specific environments. During the past few decades it has become clear that microbial communities can be found in the most diverse conditions, including extremes of temperature, pressure, salinity and pH. These microorganisms, called extremophiles, produce biocatalysts that are functional under extreme conditions. Consequently, the unique properties of these biocatalysts have resulted in several novel applications of enzymes in industrial processes. From recent study, major approaches to extending the range of applications of extremozymes have emerged. Both the discovery of new extremophilic species and the determination of genome sequences provide a route to new enzymes, with the possibility that these will lead to novel applications. Only a minor fraction of the microorganisms on earth have been exploited. Novel developments in the cultivation and production of extremophiles but also developments related to the cloning and expression of their genes in heterologous hosts, will increase the number of enzyme-driven transformations in chemical, food, pharmaceutical and other industrial applications. Of equal importance directed evolutions provide approaches to improve enzyme stability and modify specificity in ways that may not exist in the natural world. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

Kumar V.,Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical science and Research | Bharti A.,Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical science and Research | Gupta V.K.,Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical science and Research | Gusain O.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University | Bisht G.S.,Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical science and Research
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to isolate and screen actinomycetes from solitary wasp and swallow bird mud nests for antimicrobial activity. The actinomycetes were isolated from soil of nests of solitary wasp and swallow bird, and identified on the basis of morphological characteristics and molecular biological methods. A total of 109 actinomycetal isolates were obtained from 12 soil samples (6 from each habitat) using two media. The highest number of actinomycetes were recovered on Humic acid vitamin agar media (65. 13%, n = 71) as compared to actinomycetes isolation agar media (34. 86%, n = 38). The antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes isolates was determined using the agar plug method. Among 109 isolates, 51 isolates (46. 78%) showed antibacterial activity by agar plug assay. The morphological and molecular characteristics confirmed that the most of active isolates in both sample belonged to the genus Streptomyces, the other potential genera like Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Saccharopolyspora, Thermoactinomycetes and Nocardia were also recovered, but in a low frequency. The isolates designated as 8(1)*, BN-6, MN 2(6), MN 2(7) and MN 9(V) showed most promising activity against various drug resistant bacterial pathogens. It seems that the promising isolates from these unusual/unexplored habitats may prove to be an important step in development of drug for treating multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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