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Sardar Bahadur Khan Women's University is a women's university located in Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. It was established in 2004 Wikipedia.

Ali A.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Manzoor M.,Sardar Bahadur Khan Womens University
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2013

The main purpose of this study is to propose a method that could recognize the Pakistani paper currency note. There are many real-life applications which heavily use many techniques based on Pattern Recognition such as voice recognition, character recognition, handwriting recognition and face recognition. Paper currency recognition is a new application of pattern recognition. This application uses the computing power in differentiating between different kinds of currencies with their suitable class. Selection of proper feature enhanced the performance of the overall system. We are aiming to develop an intelligent system for Pakistani paper currency that could recognize the currency note accurately. In this study, we have taken samples domain of five different Pakistani paper currency notes (Rs. 10, 20, 50, 100, 1000). We scanned total 100 currency notes, 20 from each sample of selected domain for feature extraction of these images using a software. The images will be matched with the features stored in MAT file and if the features of test images will be matched with that file, the software will return the class of that currency note. Experimental results are presented which show that this scheme can recognize currently available 8 notes of Pakistan's Currency (Rs. 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000 etc.) successfully with an average accuracy of 98.57%. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2013. Source

Manzoor R.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Shams-ul-Islam,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Abbasi W.S.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Parveen S.,Sardar Bahadur Khan Womens University
Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology | Year: 2016

In this numerical study, the variation of wake patterns and force coefficients of the flow past four square bodies aligned inline are investigated. A two-dimensional numerical code is developed using the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for this study. The code is first validated for the flow past a single and two tandem square cylinders. The results are compared to those available in literature and found to be in good agreement. After validation the calculations are further performed to investigate the effect of gap spacing (g) for the flow past four inline square cylinders at two different Reynolds numbers (Re) 100 and 200. The gap spacing is chosen in the range 0.25 ≤ g ≤ 7. Six different flow patterns: Single slender body, alternate reattachment, quasi steady reattachment, intermittent shedding, chaotic flow and periodic flow are found in this study with successive increment in spacing. It is found that some flow patterns existing at Re = 100 do not exist at Re = 200. The generated vortices at Re = 200 are much stronger as compared to those at Re = 100. The spacing value g = 3 is found to be critical at Re = 100 while at Re = 200 the spacing value g = 2 is critical due to abrupt changes in flow characteristics. At some spacing values the downstream cylinders have higher values of average drag coefficients as compared to upstream ones. In general the upstream cylinder (c1) have higher drag forces at Re = 200 than at Re = 100. The root mean square values of lift coefficient are found to be greater than the corresponding root mean square values of drag coefficient. © 2016, The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Farina Y.,National University of Malaysia | Abdullah P.B.,National University of Malaysia | Bibi N.,Sardar Bahadur Khan Womens University
Journal of Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2016

Pesticides are necessary for increasing agricultural productivity; however, their enormous use contaminates air, water and food. Among various organic pesticides, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are most persistent; and though their use is banned, they are still used illegally. In contrast to OCPs, organophosphorous pesticides are less persistent and used most extensively, while synthetic pyrethroid pesticides are the least toxic and used as insecticides. Extensive use of these pesticides is vulnerable to the ecosystem. Various extraction methods are used worldwide both by the regulatory bodies and private laboratories for the determination of multi-residue pesticides in leafy vegetables. This mini review presents an update on extraction procedure in gas chromatographic methods of pesticides analysis in various samples with special emphasis on leafy vegetables. We have covered six years of work from 2008–2013, discussing various extraction methods and their applications. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

Rasheed A.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Nawaz R.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Khan S.A.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Hanif H.,Sardar Bahadur Khan Womens University | Wahab A.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat and Fluid Flow | Year: 2015

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study the thin film flow of a fourth grade fluid subject to slip conditions in order to understand its velocity profile. Design/methodology/approach - An exact expression for flow velocity is derived in terms of hyperbolic sine functions. The practical usage of the exact flow velocity is restrictive as it involves very complicated integrals. Therefore, an approximate solution is also derived using a Galerkin finite element method and numerical error analysis is performed. Findings - The behavior of fluid velocity with respect to various flow parameters is discussed. The results are not restrictive to small values of flow parameters unlike those obtained earlier using homotopy analysis method and homotopy perturbation method. Originality/value - An approximate solution based on finite element technique is derived. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

Iftikhar T.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Niaz M.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Ali E.A.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Jabeen R.,Sardar Bahadur Khan Womens University | Abdullah R.,Lahore College for Women University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

The present study piece of study is designed to optimize the environmental conditions for the production of extracellular lipases by Fusarium sp. The fungal culture was checked in order to test its potential for lipases biosynthesis. Almond meal was optimized to be the ideal basal support for the enzyme production using solid state fermentation technique. Ten grams of almond meal supported maximum extracellular lipases (3.48±0.01a U/mL) production. Other cultural conditions like level of inoculum, quantity of moistening agent, rate of fermentation, fermentation temperature, nitrogen supplements, carbon additives, addition of various oils were also optimized. One millilitre inoculum, 10 mL of moistening agent, 30°C incubation temperature, 1% peptone as additional organic nitrogen supplement, 1% Glucose and 1% olive oil was optimized as the ideal parameters for the maximum production of the extracellular lipases. Maximum units of the extracellular lipases (56.7±0.01a U/mL) was obtained when incubation period was optimized at 72h. Source

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