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Maruzzo M.,Medical Oncology 1 | Rastrelli M.,Melanoma and Sarcoma Unit | Lumachi F.,University of Padua | Zagone V.,Medical Oncology 1 | Basso U.,Medical Oncology 1
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

Sarcomas of the soft tissue are a heterogeneous, rare and complex group of mesenchymal malignant tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all adult malignancies and about 10-15% of childhood cancer. Despite local disease control obtained with surgery and pre- or postoperative radiotherapy, roughly one half of patients with high-grade tumors experience metastatic disease. The adjunction of chemotherapy, either before or after resection, is not currently viewed as standard practice due to the lack of reproducible impact on survival. The 1997 SMAC meta-Analysis based on individual data from randomized studies confirmed a significant impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on both local and metastatic relapse, without any significant benefit on survival. Further meta-Analyses demonstrated a significant benefit also in overall survival. Yet, the latest adjuvant EORTC trial was disappointedly negative. To date, adjuvant chemotherapy may be recommended as a reasonable option for the high-risk individual patient who should be well informed on the possible risks and benefits of treatment. Also the indications for neoadjuvant chemotherapy remain controversial. A local benefit may be gained, facilitating surgery, but data on survival are limited and affected by a strong patient selection bias. In order to improve our knowledge on sarcomas and to offer patients the best of current standards, we strongly recommend that all patients be referred to a sarcoma multidisciplinary group, under whose supervision they could receive the correct combined-modality management as well as have access to new clinical trials appropriately stratified for risk and histological and/or molecular subtypes. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers. Source


Strauss D.C.,Melanoma and Sarcoma Unit | Thomas J.M.,Imperial College London
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2010

Transplant-related malignancies are a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the organ-recipient population, and most often develop de novo in the immunosuppressed recipient or as recurrent malignancy after transplantation. The least common scenario, and a rare event, is a recipient malignancy derived from the donor organ. Melanoma is one of the most often reported and lethal donor-derived malignancies with a high transmission rate. Donor transmission of melanoma might be related to the biology of melanoma, with regard to tumour dormancy, late recurrence, circulating tumour cells, and the destiny of some micrometastases. Melanoma-cell dormancy explains the late recurrence that can occur after the initial treatment of melanoma, and may be relevant to our understanding and management of some melanoma micrometastasis in the sentinel node. The high incidence of circulating tumour cells in early melanoma should be considered in the context of the transmission of melanoma by apparent disease-free organ donors following removal of a primary melanoma up to 32 years before. This scenario suggests that melanoma cells can remain dormant at distant sites for decades (and possibly forever) in immunocompetent patients, only to reactivate after transplantation into an immunosuppressed recipient. Potential organ donors should be carefully screened for a history of melanoma, and excluded. The current recommendation for treatment of donor-related melanoma includes withdrawal of immunosuppression, graft rejection, and explantation of the allograft after rejection has been established. In non-renal transplant patients with life-sustaining organs, withdrawal of immunosuppression and graft rejection is not feasible, and reduction of immunosuppression or urgent retransplantation are the only possible salvage strategies. The transmission of malignancy by organ donation could be considered " nature's own experiment" , but raises questions that our current understanding of the biology of melanoma cannot answer. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Jakob J.,University of Heidelberg | Mussi C.,The Surgical Center | Ronellenfitsch U.,University of Heidelberg | Wardelmann E.,University of Cologne | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: The rectum is a rare site of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and factors determining long-term outcome remain unclear. In a population study, we assessed the outcome of rectal GIST patients treated at two referral centers. Methods: A total of 39 patients diagnosed with rectal GIST between January 2002 and December 2010 were identified in prospective databases. Tumor and patient characteristics, treatment details, and outcome were evaluated. Median follow-up was 41 (3-110) months. Results: A male predominance was noticed (M/F = 29/10). Median age was 53 years (range, 32-80 years). The cohort included, of 39 patients, 12 low-risk, 26 high-risk, and 1 with M1 disease. Of 38 patients with nonmetastatic disease, 36 underwent surgery as transabdominal (15 of 36) or local (21 of 36) resection. There were 21 patients who received preoperative and/or postoperative imatinib treatment. Patients with preoperative imatinib (16 of 36) had a significantly higher rate of R0 resections (p =.02). Five patients developed local recurrences. All of them had undergone local tumor excision with positive margins and without perioperative imatinib. Also, five patients suffered from distant metastases. All belonged to the high-risk group and underwent tumor surgery (3 R0, 2 R1) without receiving perioperative imatinib. A total of three patients died of disease. Perioperative imatinib was associated with improved local disease-free, disease-free, and overall survival (p <.01, p <.01, and p =.03, respectively). Local disease-free survival was significantly improved by negative resection margins (p <.01). Conclusions: Complete resection is recommended to achieve local disease control. Preoperative imatinib was associated with improved surgical margins. Perioperative imatinib was associated with improved local disease-free, disease-free, and overall survival. © 2012 Society of Surgical Oncology. Source


Camisaschi C.,Unit of Immunotherapy of Human Tumor | De Filippo A.,Unit of Immunotherapy of Human Tumor | Beretta V.,Unit of Immunotherapy of Human Tumor | Vergani B.,University of Milan Bicocca | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2014

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) at tumor sites are often tolerogenic. Although pDCs initiate innate and adaptive immunity upon Toll-like receptor (TLR) triggering by pathogens, TLR-independent signals may be responsible for pDC activation and immune suppression in the tumor inflammatory environment. To identify molecules that are potentially involved in alternative pDC activation, we explored the expression and function of lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3) in human pDCs. In this report, we showed the expression of LAG-3 on the cell surface of a subset of circulating human pDCs. LAG-3+ pDCs exhibited a partially mature phenotype and were enriched at tumor sites in samples from melanoma patients. We found that LAG-3 interacted with major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) to induce TLR-independent activation of pDCs with limited IFNα and enhanced IL-6 production. This in vitro cytokine profile of LAG-3-activated pDCs paralleled that of tumor-associated pDCs analyzed ex vivo. By confocal microscopy, LAG-3+ pDCs detected in melanoma-invaded lymph nodes (LNs) stained positive for IL-6 and preferentially localized near melanoma cells. These results suggest that LAG-3-mediated activation of pDCs takes place in vivo at tumor sites, and it is in part responsible for directing an immune-suppressive environment. © 2014 The Society for Investigative Dermatology. Source


Ferrari A.,Pediatric Oncology Unit | Bisogno G.,University of Padua | Cecchetto G.,University of Padua | Santinami M.,Melanoma and Sarcoma Unit | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Objective To describe a series of cutaneous melanoma in children collected by the Italian Rare Tumors in Pediatric Age project. Study design From 2000 to 2012, 54 patients younger than 18 years of age were prospectively registered and treated at 12 Italian pediatric centers on the basis of the same diagnostic/therapeutic recommendations and with the same forms to record clinical data. Results Considering the estimated annual incidence in Italy, the registered cases accounted for 30% of those expected in children and 10% of adolescents. Clinically, 47% of the tumors were amelanotic and 81% were raised, 39% of cases had tumor thickness >2 mm, and 36% had lymph node involvement. For the whole series, 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 75.2% and 84.6%, respectively. Patient survival correlated with tumor stage and ulceration. No relapses were recorded for T1-2 (thickness <2 mm), N0, and stage 0-I-II cases. Conclusion We suggest that the variables influencing survival in children with melanoma are the same as for adults, the clinical approach used in adults is feasible in children, and pediatric cases are more likely to have advanced disease at diagnosis but similar survival. New effective drugs are needed for advanced disease, and biological studies and international cooperative schemes are warranted. Source

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